Non-centrosomal Microtubule Organization in Differentiated Cells
The centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material. During the formation of the mitotic spindle, multi-protein complexes in the pericentriolar material are involved in the nucleation and anchorage of microtubules. In postmitotic cells of many tissues, proteins of the pericentriolar material lose their association with the centrosome and redistribute to various sites in the cytoplasm, to the cellular cortex, or to the nuclear surface. Consequently, the organization of the microtubule network is changed. Localization of centrosomal proteins and organization of microtubules follow cell type-specific patterns, to fulfill specialized functions. For example, in polarized epithelia, microtubules are involved in transcytosis and establishment of epithelial polarity, in neurons microtubules are necessary for axonal transport, or in muscle microtubules participate in the assembly of sarcomeres and in the positioning of nuclei. In this review, the principles of microtubule organization in different cell types will be described. The role of microtubules in muscle cells and the potential involvement of microtubule-dependent processes in muscular diseases will be documented in detail.
KeywordsMuscular Dystrophy Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Microtubule Network Microtubule Organization Centrosomal Protein
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