Governance in Space
Governance structures are comprised of some combination of norms, rules, adjudication procedures, and enforcement mechanisms. Norms are general principles; rules are specific stipulations with regard to specific behaviours; adjudication procedures are established to decide when rules have been broken; enforcement mechanisms impose penalties when it has been determined that a rule has been violated. For instance in international trade the general principle informing the World Trade Organization is that free trade is good; a specific rule would refer, for instance, to the circumstances that define dumping or state subsidies; the dispute settlement mechanism of the WTO adjudicates disagreements about the rules; the enforcement mechanism in the WTO is the withdrawal of concessions. Governance structures are necessary in situations where the unconstrained behaviour of actors will result in sub-optimal outcomes; situations in which without governance structures the Pareto frontier would not be reached.