Negotiations Between Early Evolving Animals and Symbionts

  • Thomas C. G. Bosch
  • David J. Miller


Cnidarians are constantly exposed to microbes. It is therefore not too surprising that molecular analyses have revealed a variety of molecular pathways used by cnidarians to respond to microbial exposure. When approaching the epithelium of a cnidarian, microbes first encounter extracellular germline-encoded surface receptors that recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Examples of MAMPs include lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), peptidoglycan (PGN), flagellin, and microbial nucleic acids. Perception of a MAMP at the cell surface is achieved by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which then initiate MAMP-triggered immunity. In this chapter, we consider one by one the major components used by the cnidarians host to interact with the microbes.


Innate Immune System Adaptive Immune System Beneficial Microbe Host Pathway Cnidarian Host 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. G. Bosch
    • 1
  • David J. Miller
    • 2
  1. 1.Zoological InstituteChristian Albrechts Universitätzu KielKielGermany
  2. 2.ARC Cnt. of Execl. for Coral Reef Stud.James Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

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