Seeking a Holistic View of Early Emerging Metazoans: The Power of Modularity

  • Thomas C. G. Bosch
  • David J. Miller


In our tour of early emerging metazoans, we have seen that a coral colony may be rooted in a given place, but it is never lonely. There are symbiotic algae and bacteria living in, on, and near it. We also have seen that arranging a simple organism as a metaorganism of several self-coordinating parts can confer fitness and help to sustain periods of changing environmental conditions. We even came to the point to accept that life is fundamental multi-organismal. And we have seen some of the ways holobionts become fragile and break.


Stem Cell Factor Tissue Homeostasis Coral Colony Symbiotic Alga Simple Organism 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. G. Bosch
    • 1
  • David J. Miller
    • 2
  1. 1.Zoological InstituteChristian Albrechts Universitätzu KielKielGermany
  2. 2.ARC Cnt. of Execl. for Coral Reef Stud.James Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

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