Advertisement

Introduction: The Holobiont Imperative

  • Thomas C. G. Bosch
  • David J. Miller
Chapter

Abstract

This book is being written at a time when fundamental shifts in thinking are occurring in the life sciences, but when the metaphorical ground has not yet settled under our feet. There are no germ-free animals in nature. Epithelia in contact with the environment are colonized by microbial communities, and all multicellular organisms must be considered an association of the macroscopic host in synergistic interdependence with bacteria, archaea, fungi, and numerous other microbial and eukaryotic species. We refer to these associations that can be analyzed, measured, and sequenced, as “holobionts” or “metaorganisms” (Fig. 1.1).

Keywords

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Autism Spectrum Disorder Atopic Dermatitis Multicellular Organism Coral Bleaching 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bach JF (2002) The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases’. New Engl J Med 347(2002):911–920CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bell G (1998) Model metaorganism. A book review. Science 282(5387):248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biagi E, Candela M, Fairweather-Tait S, Franceschi C, Brigidi P (2012) Ageing of the human metaorganism: the microbial counterpart. Age (Dordr) 34(1):247–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Colman RJ, Rubin DT, 12 (2014) Fecal microbiota transplantation as therapy for inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Crohn’s Colitis 8:1569–1581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dasgupta S, Kasper DL (2013) Relevance of commensal microbiota in the treatment and prevention of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 19:2478–2489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fraune S, Anton-Erxleben F, Augustin R, Franzenburg S, Knop M, Schröder K, Willoweit-Ohl D, Bosch TC (2014) Bacteria-bacteria interactions within the microbiota of the ancestral metazoan Hydra contribute to fungal resistance. ISME J 9(7):1543–1556. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.239 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Grmek MD (1969) Préliminaires d’une étude historique des maladies. Ann Econ Soc Civilisat 24:1437–1483Google Scholar
  8. Gordon J, Knowlton N, Relman DA, Rohwer F, Youle M (2013) Superorganisms and holobionts. Microbe magazine. April 2013 issueGoogle Scholar
  9. Hsiao EY, McBride SW, Hsien S, Sharon G, Hyde ER, McCue T, Codelli JA, Chow J, Reisman SE, Petrosino JF, Patterson PH, Mazmanian SK (2013) Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cell 155(7):1451–1463CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaufman LS (1983) Effects of Hurricane Allen on reef fish assemblages near Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Coral Reefs 2:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Knowlton N (2001) The future of coral reefs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(10):5419–5425CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Knowlton N, Rohwer F (2003) Multispecies microbial mutualisms on coral reefs: the host as a habitat. Am Nat 162:S51–S62Google Scholar
  13. Li XY, Pietschke C, Fraune S, Altrock PM, Bosch TC, Traulsen A (2015) Which games are growing bacterial populations playing? J R Soc Interface. 12(108):20150121.Google Scholar
  14. Margulis L (1993) Symbiosis in cell evolution, 2nd edn. W. H. Freeman & Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. May RM, Levin SA, Sugihara G (2008) Complex systems: Ecology for bankers. Nature 451:893–895CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Möbius KA (1877) Die Auster und die Austernwirtschaft. Wiegandt, Hempel & Parey, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  17. Sokolov S (2009) Effects of a changing climate on the dynamics of coral infectious disease: a review of the evidence. Dis Aquat Organ 87(1–2):5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Hamady M, Fraser-Liggett CM, Knight R, Gordon JI (2007) The human microbiome project. Nature 449:804–810CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. G. Bosch
    • 1
  • David J. Miller
    • 2
  1. 1.Zoological InstituteChristian Albrechts Universitätzu KielKielGermany
  2. 2.ARC Cnt. of Execl. for Coral Reef Stud.James Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations