The Challenge of Predicting the Immunotoxic Potential of Chemicals
Well before the mechanisms were understood, pulmonary immune diseases had been associated with environmental chemicals, i.e., air contaminants. During the second half of the twentieth century, purpose and function of the different components of the immune system as well as their interactions with chemicals were extensively investigated and ultimately understood in more detail. In addition to a deeper understanding of immunological interactions and mechanisms, a series of accidents involving immunotoxic compounds pushed the development of immunotoxicological science in the last century.
KeywordsLymphoid Organ Applicability Domain Local Lymph Node Assay Immunotoxic Effect Cosmetic Directive
Thanks go to my esteemed colleague Fred Aswad for his assistance and thoroughly reviewing the manuscript. I like to thank Anna Fischer-Berenbein for providing the basis for two modified figures included here.
- Baker SR, Gibson BG (2014) Social oral epidemi(olog)2 y where next: one small step or one giant leap? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12118 [Epub ahead of print]
- Barnett J (2005) Developmental immunotoxicology. In: Vohr HW (ed) Immunotoxicology. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 201–203Google Scholar
- Boverhof DR, Ladics G, Luebke B, Botham J, Corsini E, Evans E, Germolec D, Holsapple M, Loveless SE, Lu H, van der Laan JW, White KL Jr, Yang Y (2014) Approaches and considerations for the assessment of immunotoxicity for environmental chemicals: a workshop summary. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 68:96–107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang ET, Boffetta P, Adami HO, Cole P, Mandel JS (2014) A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer. Eur J Epidemiol [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
- Dayan AD, Kuper F, Madsen C, Smialowicz RJ, Smith E, Van Loveren H, Vos JC, White KL (1998) Report of validation study of assessment of direct immunotoxicity in the rat. The ICICIS group investigators. International collaborative immunotoxicity study. Toxicology 125(2–3):183Google Scholar
- Geier J, Uter W, Krautheim A, Lessmann H, Schnuch A (2011) Die häufigsten Kontaktallergene der Jahre 2007–2009. Aktuelle Daten aus dem Informationsverbund Dermatologischer Kliniken (IVDK). Allergo J 20:93–101. GermanGoogle Scholar
- Hermann-Kunz E (1999) Incidence of allergic diseases in East and West Germany. Gesundheitswesen 61:100–105. GermanGoogle Scholar
- OECD, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (1981) OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals no. 407 (Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents), adopted 1992Google Scholar
- Richter-Reichhelm H-B, Dasenbrock C, Descotes G, Emmendörfer A, Heinrich UE, Harlemann JH, Hilde¬brand B, Küttler K, Rühl-Fehlert CI, Schilling K, Schulte AE, Vohr H-W (1995) Validation of a modified 28-Day rat study to evidence effects of test compounds on the immune system. Regul Toxicol Pharmakol 22:54–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schulz C, Conrad A, Becker K, Kolossa-Gehring M, Seiwert M, Seifert B (2007b) Twenty years of the German Environmental Survey (GerES): human biomonitoring – Temporal and spatial (West Germany/East Germany) differences in population exposure. Int J Hyg Environ Health 210:271–297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- US-EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency (1998) Health effects test guidelines: OPPTS 870.7800. ImmunotoxicityGoogle Scholar
- Van Loveren H, Germolec D, Koren HS, Luster MI, Nolan C, Repetto R, Smith E, Vos JG, Vogt RF (1999) Report of the Bilthoven Symposium: Advancement of epidemiological studies in assessing the human health effects of immunotoxic agents in the environment and the workplace. Biomarkers 4:135–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar