Tardigrades, also known as “water bears,” are microscopic invertebrates usually not exceeding 1 mm in length. They are found in a variety of marine, limnic, and limno-terrestrial habitats, such as benthos, soil, and moss cushions. Many species can form environmentally resistant cysts, or tuns, that allow them to survive desiccation, freezing, high radiation levels, and other environmental extremes. Some species have even survived an exposure to outer space. However, the mechanisms that enable them to withstand these extreme conditions remain poorly understood.


Malpighian Tubule Cleavage Pattern Ectodermal Cell Cuticular Structure Mouth Cone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of KasselKasselGermany

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