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Objective Measures of the Sleep–Wake Cycle in Parkinson’s Disease

  • Valérie Cochen De CockEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Complaints about sleep–wake cycle are frequent in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nocturnal sleep in PD may be impaired by several factors: motor phenomena related to the disease such as nocturnal bradykinesia/akinesia, rigidity, tremor or nocturia, and comorbid sleep disorders such as insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movements (PLMs), circadian rhythm alteration, sleep disordered breathing, and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Moreover, daytime sleepiness and sleep attacks are frequently reported in patients with PD. Numerous studies evaluating sleep in PD have pressed that not only the illness but also dopaminergic treatments may play an important role in these sleep disorders.

Questionnaires have been developed to identify sleep disorders in the context of PD, but objective measures are needed to confirm diagnoses and inform treatments to the patients.

Videopolysomnographic recording is the gold standard to explore sleep and to diagnose PLMs, sleep disordered breathing, and RBD. Suggested immobilization test is a useful measure to explore RLS especially in patients with PD. Excessive daytime sleepiness is usually explored as in central hypersomnia by multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) but actigraphy or 24-h ambulatory polysomnography could be interesting tools to evaluate sleepiness at home, in a more naturalistic way. Maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) is interesting to evaluate vigilance and though the efficacy of the different treatments used to improve sleepiness.

Keywords

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Apnea Hypopnea Index Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Multiple Sleep Latency Test Circadian Rhythm Alteration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Service des pathologies du sommeilClinique Beau SoleilMontpellierFrance

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