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Cognition and the Sleep–Wake Cycle in Parkinson’s Disease

  • Jean-Francois GagnonEmail author
  • Ronald B. Postuma
  • Gabrielle Lyonnais-Lafond
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Abstract

Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have received increasing attention in the past decade, particularly cognitive and sleep dysfunctions. Moreover, a growing body of evidence suggests an association between sleep and cognition in aging. This chapter outlines the role of sleep in the maintenance of cognition and learning and the high prevalence of cognitive impairment in PD. We then summarize the evidence for and against associations between rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), insomnia, sleep quality, sleep architecture abnormalities, and cognitive impairment in PD. Three major sleep outcomes, RBD, EDS, and reduced sleep spindles, are correlated to cognitive impairment in PD, whereas insomnia, sleep quality, and SDB show modest or no correlation. Further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the role of RBD, EDS, and sleep spindle abnormalities as potential markers of cognitive decline in PD.

Keywords

Parkinson’s disease Sleep Cognition Aging Mild cognitive impairment Dementia 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Francois Gagnon
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ronald B. Postuma
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gabrielle Lyonnais-Lafond
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Centre d’Études Avancées en Médecine du SommeilHôpital du Sacré-Cœur de MontréalMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyMcGill University, Montreal General HospitalMontrealCanada

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