Advertisement

Fatigue and Sleepiness in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

  • Elisabeth SvenssonEmail author
Chapter
  • 1k Downloads

Abstract

The main focus of this chapter is fatigue in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, with particular emphasis on defining and measuring fatigue, describing the epidemiology of fatigue and associated factors, including a brief discussion of the interface between fatigue and sleepiness. Fatigue is a common non-motor symptom in PD patients, but is also a common complaint in the general population. To facilitate research of fatigue in PD it is important to clearly define the concept of fatigue and to use fatigue scales with good psychometric properties. Additionally, it is important to disentangle the effects of fatigue from the effects of other comorbid symptoms in the PD patients, such as depression and sleep problems. Fatigue and sleepiness are two distinct entities; thus, it is important to separate excessive daytime sleepiness from fatigue. Because of scant knowledge on pathophysiology and treatment, these sections are discussed briefly.

Keywords

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Sleep Problem Fatigue Severity Scale Central Fatigue Physical Fatigue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Shulman LM, Taback RL, Rabinstein AA, Weiner WJ. Non-recognition of depression and other non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2002;8:193–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Havlikova E, Rosenberger J, Nagyova I, Middel B, Dubayova T, Gdovinova Z, van Dijk JP, Groothoff JW. Impact of fatigue on quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:475–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herlofson K, Larsen JP. The influence of fatigue on health-related quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neurol Scand. 2003;107:1–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Martinez-Martin P. The importance of non-motor disturbances to quality of life in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci. 2011;310:12–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Friedman JH, Chou KL. Sleep and fatigue in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2004;10 Suppl 1:S27–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lou JS. Physical and mental fatigue in Parkinson’s disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment. Drugs Aging. 2009;26:195–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brown RG, Dittner A, Findley L, Wessely SC. The Parkinson fatigue scale. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2005;11:49–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lou JS, Kearns G, Oken B, Sexton G, Nutt J. Exacerbated physical fatigue and mental fatigue in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2001;16:190–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fukuda K, Straus SE, Hickie I, Sharpe MC, Dobbins JG, Komaroff A. The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:953–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dittner AJ, Wessely SC, Brown RG. The assessment of fatigue: a practical guide for clinicians and researchers. J Psychosom Res. 2004;56:157–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aarsland D, Marsh L, Schrag A. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:2175–86.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chalder T, Berelowitz G, Pawlikowska T, Watts L, Wessely S, Wright D, Wallace EP. Development of a fatigue scale. J Psychosom Res. 1993;37:147–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hagell P, Hoglund A, Reimer J, Eriksson B, Knutsson I, Widner H, Cella D. Measuring fatigue in Parkinson’s disease: a psychometric study of two brief generic fatigue questionnaires. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;32:420–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Friedman JH, Alves G, Hagell P, Marinus J, Marsh L, Martinez-Martin P, Goetz CG, Poewe W, Rascol O, Sampaio C, Stebbins G, Schrag A. Fatigue rating scales critique and recommendations by the Movement Disorders Society task force on rating scales for Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25:805–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krupp LB, LaRocca NG, Muir-Nash J, Steinberg AD. The fatigue severity scale. Application to patients with multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Neurol. 1989;46:1121–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Friedman JH, Brown RG, Comella C, Garber CE, Krupp LB, Lou JS, Marsh L, Nail L, Shulman L, Taylor CB. Fatigue in Parkinson’s disease: a review. Mov Disord. 2007;22:297–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beiske AG, Loge JH, Hjermstad MJ, Svensson E. Fatigue in Parkinson’s disease: prevalence and associated factors. Mov Disord. 2010;25:2456–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Karlsen K, Larsen JP, Tandberg E, Jorgensen K. Fatigue in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 1999;14:237–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Loge JH, Ekeberg O, Kaasa S. Fatigue in the general Norwegian population: normative data and associations. J Psychosom Res. 1998;45:53–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hagell P, Brundin L. Towards an understanding of fatigue in Parkinson disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:489–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Herlofson K, Ongre SO, Enger LK, Tysnes OB, Larsen JP. Fatigue in early Parkinson’s disease. Minor inconvenience or major distress? Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:963–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shulman LM, Taback RL, Bean J, Weiner WJ. Comorbidity of the nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2001;16:507–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alves G, Wentzel-Larsen T, Larsen JP. Is fatigue an independent and persistent symptom in patients with Parkinson disease? Neurology. 2004;63:1908–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Okuma Y, Kamei S, Morita A, Yoshii F, Yamamoto T, Hashimoto S, Utsumi H, Hatano T, Hattori N, Matsumura M, Takahashi K, Nogawa S, Watanabe Y, Miyamoto T, Miyamoto M, Hirata K. Fatigue in Japanese patients with Parkinson’s disease: a study using Parkinson fatigue scale. Mov Disord. 2009;24:1977–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Svensson E, Beiske AG, Loge JH, Beiske KK, Sivertsen B. Sleep problems in Parkinson’s disease: a community-based study in Norway. BMC Neurol. 2012;12:71.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Havlikova E, van Dijk JP, Rosenberger J, Nagyova I, Middel B, Dubayova T, Gdovinova Z, Groothoff JW. Fatigue in Parkinson’s disease is not related to excessive sleepiness or quality of sleep. J Neurol Sci. 2008;270:107–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Valko PO, Waldvogel D, Weller M, Bassetti CL, Held U, Baumann CR. Fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease differently correlate with motor symptoms, depression and dopaminergic treatment. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17:1428–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Arnulf I. Excessive daytime sleepiness in parkinsonism. Sleep Med Rev. 2005;9:185–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Friedman JH, Abrantes A, Sweet LH. Fatigue in Parkinson’s disease. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12:1999–2007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schifitto G, Friedman JH, Oakes D, Shulman L, Comella CL, Marek K, Fahn S. Fatigue in levodopa-naive subjects with Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2008;71:481–5.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Havlikova E, Rosenberger J, Nagyova I, Middel B, Dubayova T, Gdovinova Z, Groothoff W, van Dijk P. Clinical and psychosocial factors associated with fatigue in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2008;14:187–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mendonca DA, Menezes K, Jog MS. Methylphenidate improves fatigue scores in Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial. Mov Disord. 2007;22:2070–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Seppi K, Weintraub D, Coelho M, Perez-Lloret S, Fox SH, Katzenschlager R, Hametner EM, Poewe W, Rascol O, Goetz CG, Sampaio C. The movement disorder society evidence-based medicine review update: treatments for the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26 Suppl 3:S42–80. doi: 10.1002/mds.23884.:S42-S80.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Levine J, Greenwald BD. Fatigue in Parkinson disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2009;20:347–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Abrantes AM, Friedman JH, Brown RA, Strong DR, Desaulniers J, Ing E, Saritelli J, Riebe D. Physical activity and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2012;25:138–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Garber CE, Friedman JH. Effects of fatigue on physical activity and function in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neurology. 2003;60:1119–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Speelman AD, van de Warrenburg BP, van Nimwegen M, Petzinger GM, Munneke M, Bloem BR. How might physical activity benefit patients with Parkinson disease? Nat Rev Neurol. 2011;7:528–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    van Nimwegen M, Speelman AD, Hofman-van Rossum EJ, Overeem S, Deeg DJ, Borm GF, van der Horst MH, Bloem BR, Munneke M. Physical inactivity in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol. 2011;258:2214–21.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical EpidemiologyAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark

Personalised recommendations