Advertisement

Alcohol

  • Ichiro WakabayashiEmail author
Chapter
  • 606 Downloads

Abstract

Alcohol drinking is a general modifiable risk factor for various diseases including cardiovascular disease. A J-shaped relationship is known to exist between alcohol intake and risk of cardiovascular disease as well as between alcohol intake and total mortality. Risks of ischemic arterial diseases, such as coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease, are lower in light-to-moderate drinkers (not more than one drink per day for women and not more than two drinks per day for men) than in abstainers. Beneficial effects of alcohol drinking on the risks of ischemic arterial diseases are mainly explained by the actions of alcohol on cholesterol metabolism and the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption has also been shown to be associated with decrease in production of proinflammatory cytokines and increase in insulin sensitivity. Additional benefits for cardiovascular protection are expected in polyphenols, contained in red wine, which exert cardiovascular protective actions represented by antioxidative action. On the other hand, heavy drinking and binge drinking increase the risks of hemorrhagic types of stroke, such as cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage; cardiomyopathy; and cardiac arrhythmia, particularly atrial fibrillation. The association between alcohol and hemorrhagic stroke is speculated to be due to alcohol-induced hypertension in combination with impaired blood coagulation-fibrinolysis balance. Drinking alcohol beverages, particularly beer, causes increase in blood uric acid level, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A variety of molecular pathophysiological mechanisms, e.g., oxidative stress, protein phosphorylation, and alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis and gene expression, explained in this chapter are involved in the beneficial and detrimental effects of alcohol on cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Furthermore, the relationships between alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk may be modified by individual genetic backgrounds represented by polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. Although light-to-moderate drinking is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, the use of alcohol as a strategy for cardiovascular protection is not recommended for abstainers because of the lack of randomized outcome data and the future possibility of alcohol abuse.

Keywords

Alcohol Arrhythmia Cardiomyopathy Cholesterol Coagulation-fibrinolysis balance Hypertension Inflammation Insulin sensitivity Polyphenol Uric acid 

References

  1. Ahmad A, Farhan Asad S, Singh S, Hadi SM (2000) DNA breakage by resveratrol and Cu(II): reaction mechanism and bacteriophage inactivation. Cancer Lett 154:29–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albert CM, Manson JE, Cook NR, Ajani UA, Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH (1999) Moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of sudden cardiac death among US male physicians. Circulation 100:944–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldhahi W, Hamdy O (2003) Adipokines, inflammation, and the endothelium in diabetes. Curr Diab Rep 3:293–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altura BM, Altura BT (1982) Microvascular and vascular smooth muscle actions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate. Fed Proc 41:2447–2451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anselm E, Chataigneau M, Ndiaye M, Chataigneau T, Schini-Kerth VB (2007) Grape juice causes endothelium-dependent relaxation via a redox-sensitive Src- and Akt-dependent activation of eNOS. Cardiovasc Res 73:404–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balbão CE, de Paola AA, Fenelon G (2009) Effects of alcohol on atrial fibrillation: myths and truths. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 3:53–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boekholdt SM, Sacks FM, Jukema JW, Shepherd J, Freeman DJ, McMahon AD, Cambien F, Nicaud V, de Grooth GJ, Talmud PJ, Humphries SE, Miller GJ, Eiriksdottir G, Gudnason V, Kauma H, Kakko S, Savolainen MJ, Arca M, Montali A, Liu S, Lanz HJ, Zwinderman AH, Kuivenhoven JA, Kastelein JJ (2005) Cholesteryl ester transfer protein TaqIB variant, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, cardiovascular risk, and efficacy of pravastatin treatment: individual patient meta-analysis of 13,677 subjects. Circulation 111:278–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Booyse FM, Aikens ML, Grenett HE (1999) Endothelial cell fibrinolysis: transcriptional regulation of fibrinolytic protein gene expression (t-PA, u-PA, and PAI-1) by low alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23:1119–1124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brien SE, Ronksley PE, Turner BJ, Mukamal KJ, Ghali WA (2011) Effect of alcohol consumption on biological markers associated with risk of coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies. BMJ 342:d636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brooks PJ, Enoch MA, Goldman D, Li TK, Yokoyama A (2009) The alcohol flushing response: an unrecognized risk factor for esophageal cancer from alcohol consumption. PLoS Med 6:e50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Camargo CA Jr, Stampfer MJ, Glynn RJ, Gaziano JM, Manson JE, Goldhaber SZ, Hennekens CH (1997) Prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease in US male physicians. Circulation 95:577–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlsson S, Hammar N, Grill V (2005) Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes meta-analysis of epidemiological studies indicates a U-shaped relationship. Diabetologia 48:1051–1054PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carluccio MA, Siculella L, Ancora MA, Massaro M, Scoditti E, Storelli C, Visioli F, Distante A, De Caterina R (2003) Olive oil and red wine antioxidant polyphenols inhibit endothelial activation: antiatherogenic properties of Mediterranean diet phytochemicals. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23:622–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Castelli WP, Doyle JT, Gordon T, Hames CG, Hjortland MC, Hulley SB, Kagan A, Zukel WJ (1977) Alcohol and blood lipids. The cooperative lipoprotein phenotyping study. Lancet 2:153–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chalopin M, Tesse A, Martínez MC, Rognan D, Arnal JF, Andriantsitohaina R (2010) Estrogen receptor alpha as a key target of red wine polyphenols action on the endothelium. PLoS One 5:e8554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen L, Davey Smith G, Harbord RM, Lewis SJ (2008) Alcohol intake and blood pressure: a systematic review implementing a Mendelian randomization approach. PLoS Med 5:e52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Choi HK, Curhan G (2004) Beer, liquor, and wine consumption and serum uric acid level: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arthritis Rheum 51:1023–1029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corder R, Douthwaite JA, Lees DM, Khan NQ, Viseu Dos Santos AC, Wood EG, Carrier MJ (2001) Endothelin-1 synthesis reduced by red wine. Nature 414:863–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Corrao G, Rubbiati L, Bagnardi V, Zambon A, Poikolainen K (2000) Alcohol and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Addiction 95:1505–1523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cowpland C, Su GM, Murray M, Puddey IB, Croft KD (2006) Effect of alcohol on cytochrome p450 arachidonic acid metabolism and blood pressure in rats and its modulation by red wine polyphenolics. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 33:183–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cui Y, Blumenthal RS, Flaws JA, Whiteman MK, Langenberg P, Bachorik PS, Bush TL (2001) Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as a predictor of cardiovascular disease mortality. Arch Intern Med 161:1413–1419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davies MJ, Baer DJ, Judd JT, Brown ED, Campbell WS, Taylor PR (2002) Effects of moderate alcohol intake on fasting insulin and glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 287:2559–2562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Di Castelnuovo A, Costanzo S, Bagnardi V, Donati MB, Iacoviello L, de Gaetano G (2006) Alcohol dosing and total mortality in men and women: an updated meta-analysis of 34 prospective studies. Arch Intern Med 166:2437–2445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ettinger PO, Wu CF, De La Cruz C Jr, Weisse AB, Ahmed SS, Regan TJ (1978) Arrhythmias and the “Holiday Heart”: alcohol-associated cardiac rhythm disorders. Am Heart J 95:555–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feig DI, Kang DH, Johnson RJ (2008) Uric acid and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med 359:1811–1821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Feng AN, Chen YL, Chen YT, Ding YZ, Lin SJ (1999) Red wine inhibits monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression and modestly reduces neointimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Circulation 100:2254–2259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fernández-Solà J, Nicolás JM, Oriola J, Sacanella E, Estruch R, Rubin E, Urbano-Márquez A (2002) Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with vulnerability to alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Ann Intern Med 137:321–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fernández-Solà J, Fatjó F, Sacanella E, Estruch R, Bosch X, Urbano-Márquez A, Nicolás JM (2006) Evidence of apoptosis in alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Hum Pathol 37:1100–1110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fitzpatrick DF, Hirschfield SL, Coffey RG (1993) Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing activity of wine and other grape products. Am J Physiol 265:H774–H778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fogle RL, Lynch CJ, Palopoli M, Deiter G, Stanley BA, Vary TC (2010) Impact of chronic alcohol ingestion on cardiac muscle protein expression. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:1226–1234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Freedman JE, Parker C 3rd, Li L, Perlman JA, Frei B, Ivanov V, Deak LR, Iafrati MD, Folts JD (2001) Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. Circulation 103:2792–2798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fuhrman B, Aviram M (2001) Flavonoids protect LDL from oxidation and attenuate atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 12:41–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fumeron F, Betoulle D, Luc G, Behague I, Ricard S, Poirier O, Jemaa R, Evans A, Arveiler D, Marques-Vidal P (1995) Alcohol intake modulates the effect of a polymorphism of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene on plasma high density lipoprotein and the risk of myocardial infarction. J Clin Invest 96:1664–1671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gaziano JM, Buring JE, Breslow JL, Goldhaber SZ, Rosner B, VanDenburgh M, Willett W, Hennekens CH (1993) Moderate alcohol intake, increased levels of high-density lipoprotein and its subfractions, and decreased risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 329:1829–1834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. George A, Figueredo VM (2010) Alcohol and arrhythmias: a comprehensive review. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 11:221–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Guivernau M, Baraona E, Lieber CS (1987) Acute and chronic effects of ethanol and its metabolites on vascular production of prostacyclin in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 240:59–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hannuksela ML, Rämet ME, Nissinen AE, Liisanantti MK, Savolainen MJ (2004) Effects of ethanol on lipids and atherosclerosis. Pathophysiology 10:93–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hashimoto Y, Nakayama T, Futamura A, Omura M, Nakarai H, Nakahara K (2002) Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and changes in risk factors for coronary heart disease associated with alcohol consumption. Clin Chem 48:1043–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hatake K, Taniguchi T, Ouchi H, Sakaki N, Hishida S, Ijiri I (1990) Possible involvement of kinins in cardiovascular changes after alcohol intake. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 35:437–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heldin CH, Ostman A, Rönnstrand L (1998) Signal transduction via platelet-derived growth factor receptors. Biochim Biophys Acta 1378:F79–F113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hines LM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Gaziano JM, Ridker PM, Hankinson SE, Sacks F, Rimm EB, Hunter DJ (2001) Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase and the beneficial effect of moderate alcohol consumption on myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 344:549–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hong J, Smith RR, Harvey AE, Núñez NP (2009) Alcohol consumption promotes insulin sensitivity without affecting body fat levels. Int J Obes (Lond) 33:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hulthe J, Fagerberg B (2005) Alcohol consumption and insulin sensitivity: A review. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 3:45–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Husemoen LL, Fenger M, Friedrich N, Tolstrup JS, Beenfeldt Fredriksen S, Linneberg A (2008) The association of ADH and ALDH gene variants with alcohol drinking habits and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:1984–1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Husemoen LL, Jørgensen T, Borch-Johnsen K, Hansen T, Pedersen O, Linneberg A (2010) The association of alcohol and alcohol metabolizing gene variants with diabetes and coronary heart disease risk factors in a white population. PLoS One 5:e11735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Iijima K, Yoshizumi M, Hashimoto M, Kim S, Eto M, Ako J, Liang YQ, Sudoh N, Hosoda K, Nakahara K, Toba K, Ouchi Y (2000) Red wine polyphenols inhibit proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and downregulate expression of cyclin A gene. Circulation 101:805–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Iijima K, Yoshizumi M, Hashimoto M, Akishita M, Kozaki K, Ako J, Watanabe T, Ohike Y, Son B, Yu J, Nakahara K, Ouchi Y (2002) Red wine polyphenols inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell migration through two distinct signaling pathways. Circulation 105:2404–2410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Itoh T, Matsumoto M, Nakamura M, Okada A, Shirahashi N, Hougaku H, Hashimoto H, Sakaguchi M, Handa N, Takeshita T, Morimoto K, Hori M (1997) Effects of daily alcohol intake on the blood pressure differ depending on an individual’s sensitivity to alcohol: oriental flushing as a sign to stop drinking for health reasons. J Hypertens 15:1211–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Joosten MM, Beulens JW, Kersten S, Hendriks HF (2008) Moderate alcohol consumption increases insulin sensitivity and ADIPOQ expression in postmenopausal women: a randomised, crossover trial. Diabetologia 51:1375–1381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jung JG, Kim JS, Oh MK (2010) The role of the flushing response in the relationship between alcohol consumption and insulin resistance. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:1699–1704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kakafika AI, Liberopoulos EN, Mikhailidis DP (2007) Fibrinogen: a predictor of vascular disease. Curr Pharm Des 13:1647–1659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kanellis J, Kang DH (2005) Uric acid as a mediator of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and vascular disease. Semin Nephrol 25:39–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kawano Y (2010) Physio-pathological effects of alcohol on the cardiovascular system: its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Hypertens Res 33:181–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Klatsky AL (1996) Alcohol and hypertension. Clin Chim Acta 246:91–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Klatsky AL (2004) Alcohol-associated hypertension: when one drinks makes a difference. Hypertension 44:805–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kodama S, Saito K, Tanaka S, Horikawa C, Saito A, Heianza Y, Anasako Y, Nishigaki Y, Yachi Y, Iida KT, Ohashi Y, Yamada N, Sone H (2011) Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 57:427–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Koppes LL, Dekker JM, Hendriks HF, Bouter LM, Heine RJ (2005) Moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Diabetes Care 28:719–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Langer RD, Criqui MH, Reed DM (1992) Lipoproteins and blood pressure as biological pathways for effect of moderate alcohol consumption on coronary heart disease. Circulation 85:910–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Laonigro I, Correale M, Di Biase M, Altomare E (2009) Alcohol abuse and heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 11:453–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Latella MC, Di Castelnuovo A, de Lorgeril M, Arnout J, Cappuccio FP, Krogh V, Siani A, van Dongen M, Donati MB, de Gaetano G, Iacoviello L, European Collaborative Group of the IMMIDIET Project (2009) Genetic variation of alcohol dehydrogenase type 1C (ADH1C), alcohol consumption, and metabolic cardiovascular risk factors: results from the IMMIDIET study. Atherosclerosis 207:284–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lee J, Tan CS, Chia KS, Tan CE, Chew SK, Ordovas JM, Tai ES (2004) The lipoprotein lipase S447X polymorphism and plasma lipids: interactions with APOE polymorphisms, smoking, and alcohol consumption. J Lipid Res 45:1132–1139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Libby P (2002) Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Nature 420:868–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Liinamaa MJ, Hannuksela ML, Rämet ME, Savolainen MJ (2006) Defective glycosylation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in plasma from alcohol abusers. Alcohol Alcohol 41:18–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lucas DL, Brown RA, Wassef M, Giles TD (2005) Alcohol and the cardiovascular system: research challenges and opportunities. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:1916–1924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mäkelä SM, Jauhiainen M, Ala-Korpela M, Metso J, Lehto TM, Savolainen MJ, Hannuksela ML (2008) HDL2 of heavy alcohol drinkers enhances cholesterol efflux from raw macrophages via phospholipid-rich HDL2b particles. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:991–1000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mandrekar P, Catalano D, White B, Szabo G (2006) Moderate alcohol intake in humans attenuates monocyte inflammatory responses: inhibition of nuclear regulatory factor kappa B and induction of interleukin 10. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:135–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mandrekar P, Jeliazkova V, Catalano D, Szabo G (2007) Acute alcohol exposure exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting IkB kinase activity and p65 phosphorylation in human monocytes. J Immunol 178:7686–7693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mantzoros CS, Magkos F, Brinkoetter M, Sienkiewicz E, Dardeno TA, Kim SY, Hamnvik OP, Koniaris A (2011) Leptin in human physiology and pathophysiology. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 301:E567–E584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marumo M, Wakabayashi I (2010) Diverse effects of ethanol on Ca2+ entry and subsequent aggregation of platelets. Alcohol 44:343–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mazzaglia G, Britton AR, Altmann DR, Chenet L (2001) Exploring the relationship between alcohol consumption and non-fatal or fatal stroke: a systematic review. Addiction 96:1743–1756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McCarty MF (2001) Does regular ethanol consumption promote insulin sensitivity and leanness by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase? Med Hypotheses 57:405–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McFadden CB, Brensinger CM, Berlin JA, Townsend RR (2005) Systematic review of the effect of daily alcohol intake on blood pressure. Am J Hypertens 18:276–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meade TW, Imeson J, Stirling Y (1987) Effects of changes in smoking and other characteristics on clotting factors and the risk of ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 2:986–988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Modun D, Music I, Vukovic J, Brizic I, Katalinic V, Obad A, Palada I, Dujic Z, Boban M (2008) The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after red wine consumption is due to both plasma urate and wine polyphenols. Atherosclerosis 197:250–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mukamal KJ, Jadhav PP, D’Agostino RB, Massaro JM, Mittleman MA, Lipinska I, Sutherland PA, Matheney T, Levy D, Wilson PW, Ellison RC, Silbershatz H, Muller JE, Tofler GH (2001) Alcohol consumption and hemostatic factors: analysis of the Framingham Offspring cohort. Circulation 104:1367–1373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mukamal KJ, Massaro JM, Ault KA, Mittleman MA, Sutherland PA, Lipinska I, Levy D, D’Agostino RB, Tofler GH (2005) Alcohol consumption and platelet activation and aggregation among women and men: the Framingham Offspring Study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:1906–1912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ndiaye M, Chataigneau T, Andriantsitohaina R, Stoclet JC, Schini-Kerth VB (2003) Red wine polyphenols cause endothelium-dependent EDHF-mediated relaxations in porcine coronary arteries via a redox-sensitive mechanism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 310:371–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ndiaye M, Chataigneau M, Lobysheva I, Chataigneau T, Schini-Kerth VB (2005) Red wine polyphenol-induced, endothelium-dependent NO-mediated relaxation is due to the redox-sensitive PI3-kinase/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of endothelial NO-synthase in the isolated porcine coronary artery. FASEB J 19:455–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Nelson S, Kolls JK (2002) Alcohol, host defence and society. Nat Rev Immunol 2:205–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nguyen A, Gemmell CH, Yeo EL, Packham MA, Rand ML (1998) Ethanol inhibits thrombin-induced secretion of the contents of human platelet dense and a-granules and lysosomes. Thromb Haemost 80:662–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Osier M, Pakstis AJ, Kidd JR, Lee JF, Yin SJ, Ko HC, Edenberg HJ, Lu RB, Kidd KK (1999) Linkage disequilibrium at the ADH2 and ADH3 loci and risk of alcoholism. Am J Hum Genet 64:1147–1157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pace-Asciak CR, Rounova O, Hahn SE, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM (1996) Wines and grape juices as modulators of platelet aggregation in healthy human subjects. Clin Chim Acta 246:163–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pai JK, Hankinson SE, Thadhani R, Rifai N, Pischon T, Rimm EB (2006) Moderate alcohol consumption and lower levels of inflammatory markers in US men and women. Atherosclerosis 186:113–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Paulson QX, Hong J, Holcomb VB, Nunez NP (2010) Effects of body weight and alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity. Nutr J 9:14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pignatelli P, Pulcinelli FM, Celestini A, Lenti L, Ghiselli A, Gazzaniga PP, Violi F (2000) The flavonoids quercetin and catechin synergistically inhibit platelet function by antagonizing the intracellular production of hydrogen peroxide. Am J Clin Nutr 72:1150–1155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Potter JF, Bannan LT, Saunders JB, Ingram MC, Beevers DG (1983) Blood pressure and pressor mechanisms during alcohol withdrawal. J Hypertens Suppl 1:97–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Puddey IB, Beilin LJ (2006) Alcohol is bad for blood pressure. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 33:847–852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rehm J, Room R, Graham K, Monteiro M, Gmel G, Sempos CT (2003) The relationship of average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking to burden of disease: an overview. Addiction 98:1209–1228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Reynolds K, Lewis B, Nolen JD, Kinney GL, Sathya B, He J (2003) Alcohol consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA 289:579–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ridker PM, Vaughan DE, Stampfer MJ, Glynn RJ, Hennekens CH (1994) Association of moderate alcohol consumption and plasma concentration of endogenous tissue-type plasminogen activator. JAMA 272:929–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rimm EB, Williams P, Fosher K, Criqui M, Stampfer MJ (1999) Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of effects on lipids and haemostatic factors. BMJ 319:1523–1528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rodrigo R, Miranda A, Vergara L (2011) Modulation of endogenous antioxidant system by wine polyphenols in human disease. Clin Chim Acta 412:410–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rosenkranz S, Knirel D, Dietrich H, Flesch M, Erdmann E, Böhm M (2002) Inhibition of the PDGF receptor by red wine flavonoids provides a molecular explanation for the “French paradox”. FASEB J 16:1958–1960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rubin R (1999) Effect of ethanol on platelet function. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23:1114–1118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Samokhvalov AV, Irving HM, Rehm J (2010) Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 17:706–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Savolainen MJ, Hannuksela M, Seppänen S, Kervinen K, Kesäniemi YA (1990) Increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in alcoholics is related to low cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity. Eur J Clin Invest 20:593–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Seitz HK, Meier P (2007) The role of acetaldehyde in upper digestive tract cancer in alcoholics. Transl Res 149:293–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sherman D, Davé V, Hsu LC, Peters TJ, Yoshida A (1993) Diverse polymorphism within a short coding region of the human aldehyde dehydrogenase-5 (ALDH5) gene. Hum Genet 92:477–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Smirnoff N (2005) Antioxidants and reactive oxygen species in plants. Blackwell Publishing, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM (1997) Wine as a biological fluid: history, production, and role in disease prevention. J Clin Lab Anal 11:287–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stubbs CD, Rubin R (1992) Effect of ethanol on platelet phospholipase A2. Lipids 27:255–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sumi H, Hamada H, Tsushima H, Mihara H (1988) Urokinase-like plasminogen activator increased in plasma after alcohol drinking. Alcohol Alcohol 23:33–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Tabengwa EM, Wheeler CG, Yancey DA, Grenett HE, Booyse FM (2002) Alcohol-induced up-regulation of fibrinolytic activity and plasminogen activators in human monocytes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:1121–1127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tan Y, Li X, Prabhu SD, Brittian KR, Chen Q, Yin X, McClain CJ, Zhou Z, Cai L (2012) Angiotensin II plays a critical role in alcohol-induced cardiac nitrative damage, cell death, remodeling, and cardiomyopathy in a protein kinase C/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent manner. J Am Coll Cardiol 59:1477–1486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tsuchihashi-Makaya M, Serizawa M, Yanai K, Katsuya T, Takeuchi F, Fujioka A, Yamori Y, Ogihara T, Kato N (2009) Gene-environmental interaction regarding alcohol-metabolizing enzymes in the Japanese general population. Hypertens Res 32:207–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Urbano-Marquez A, Estruch R, Navarro-Lopez F, Grau JM, Mont L, Rubin E (1989) The effects of alcoholism on skeletal and cardiac muscle. N Engl J Med 320:409–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ursini F, Zamburlini A, Cazzolato G, Maiorino M, Bon GB, Sevanian A (1998) Postprandial plasma lipid hydroperoxides: a possible link between diet and atherosclerosis. Free Radic Biol Med 25:250–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Van de Wiel A (2012) The effect of alcohol on postprandial and fasting triglycerides. Int J Vasc Med 2012:862504Google Scholar
  109. van de Wiel A, de Lange DW (2008) Cardiovascular risk is more related to drinking pattern than to the type of alcoholic drinks. Neth J Med 66:467–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. van de Wiel A, van Golde PM, Kraaijenhagen RJ, von dem Borne PA, Bouma BN, Hart HC (2001) Acute inhibitory effect of alcohol on fibrinolysis. Eur J Clin Invest 31:164–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. van Golde PM, Hart HC, Kraaijenhagen RJ, Bouma BN, van de Wiel A (2002) Regular alcohol intake and fibrinolysis. Neth J Med 60:285–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Vary TC, Lynch CJ, Lang CH (2001) Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on regulation of myocardial protein synthesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 281:H1242–H1251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Volpato S, Pahor M, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Guralnik JM, Kritchevsky SB, Fellin R, Harris TB (2004) Relationship of alcohol intake with inflammatory markers and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in well-functioning older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Circulation 109:607–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wakabayashi I (2005) Sensitivity of circulatory response to alcohol influences the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure in Orientals. Blood Press 14:238–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wakabayashi I (2010) History of antihypertensive therapy influences the relationships of alcohol with blood pressure and pulse pressure in older men. Am J Hypertens 23:633–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wakabayashi I (2011) Combined impact of alcohol and tobacco: implications for cardiovascular disease. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep 5:501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wakabayashi I, Groschner K (2009) Modification of the association between alcohol drinking and non-HDL cholesterol by gender. Clin Chim Acta 404:154–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wakabayashi I, Marumo M (2002) Ethanol inhibits store-operated Ca2+ entry of platelets. Pharmacol Toxicol 90:226–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wakabayashi I, Masuda H (2006) Influence of drinking alcohol on atherosclerotic risk in alcohol flushers and non-flushers of Oriental patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alcohol Alcohol 41:672–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wakabayashi I, Negoro M (2002) Mechanism of inhibitory action of ethanol on inducible nitric oxide synthesis in macrophages. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 366:299–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wang Z, Barker TH, Fuller GM (1999) Alcohol at moderate levels decreases fibrinogen expression in vivo and in vitro. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23:1927–1932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Whitfield JB, O’Brien ME, Nightingale BN, Zhu G, Heath AC, Martin NG (2003) ADH genotype does not modify the effects of alcohol on high-density lipoprotein. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:509–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wright JW, Morseth SL, Abhold RH, Harding JW (1986) Elevations in plasma angiotensin II with prolonged ethanol treatment in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 24:813–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Yamada Y, Sun F, Tsuritani I, Honda R (2002) Genetic differences in ethanol metabolizing enzymes and blood pressure in Japanese alcohol consumers. J Hum Hypertens 16:479–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Takahashi S (2005) Effect of ethanol on metabolism of purine bases (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid). Clin Chim Acta 356:35–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Ying CJ, Xu JW, Ikeda K, Takahashi K, Nara Y, Yamori Y (2003) Tea polyphenols regulate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit expression and ameliorate angiotensin II-induced hyperpermeability in endothelial cells. Hypertens Res 26:823–828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zhang WS, Jiang CQ, Cheng KK, Adab P, Thomas GN, Liu B, Lam KB, Schooling CM, Lam TH (2009) Alcohol sensitivity, alcohol use and hypertension in an older Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Hypertens Res 32:741–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Preventive MedicineHyogo College of MedicineNishinomiyaJapan

Personalised recommendations