Advertisement

PERDURABLE: A Real Time Commit Protocol

  • Udai ShankerEmail author
  • B. Vidyareddi
  • Anupam Shukla
Chapter

Abstract

Real Time Systems (RTS) are those systems, for which, correctness depends not only on the logical properties of the produced results but also on the temporal properties of these results [27]. Typically, RTS are associated with critical applications in which human lives or expensive machineries may be at stake. Examples include telecommunication systems, trading systems, online gaming, chemical plant control, multi point fuel injection system (MPFI), video conferencing, missile guidance system, sensor networks etc. Hence, in such systems, an action performed too late (or too early) or a computation which uses temporally invalid data may be useless and sometimes harmful even if such an action or computation is functionally correct. As RTS continue to evolve, their applications become more and more complex, and often require timely access and predictable processing of massive amounts of data [21]. The database systems especially designed for efficient processing of these types of real time data are referred as distributed real time database system (DRTDBS). Here, data must be extremely reliable and available as any unavailability or extra delay could result in heavy loss. Business transactions being used in these applications in the absence of real time could lead to financial devastations and in worst case cause injuries or deaths [20].

Keywords

Data Item Processing Phase Global Decision Real Time Database Priority Inversion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Agrawal, S., Singh, A.N., Anand, A., Shanker, U.: SPEEDITY-A real time commit protocol. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 3(13) (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Attaluri, G.K., Kenneth, S.: The presumed-either two-phase commit protocol. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data. Eng. 14(5), 1190–1196 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Buchman, A.P., McCarthy, D.R., Hsu, M., Dayal, U.: Time Critical Database Scheduling: A Framework for Integrating Real Time Scheduling and Concurrency Control. IEEE Fifth International Conference on Data Engineering, pp. 470–480, Los Angeles, California (1989)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chung-Leung, P., Lam, K.Y.: On Using Similarity for Resolving Conflicts at Commit in Mixed Distributed Real-Time Databases. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gray, J.: Notes on database operating systems: an advanced course. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 60, pp. 397–405, Springer, Verlag (1978)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gray, J., Reuter, A.: Transaction Processing: Concepts and Technique. Morgan Kaufman, San Mateo, CA (1993)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gupta, R., Haritsa, J.R., Ramamritham, K., Seshadri, S.: Commit processing in distributed real time database systems. In: Proceedings of Real-time Systems Symposium, IEEE Computer Society Press, Washington DC, San Francisco (1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gupta, R., Haritsa, J.R., Ramamritham, K.: More optimistic about real time distributed commit processing. In: Proceedings of Real-Time Systems Symposium (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haritsa, J., Ramamritham, K., Gupta, R.: The PROMPT real time commit protocol. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distr. Syst. 11(2), 160–181 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lam, K.-Y.: Concurrency Control in Distributed Real – Time Database Systems, PhD Thesis, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (1994)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lam, K.Y., Pang, C.-L., Son, S.H., Cao, J.: Resolving executing-committing conflicts in distributed real-time database systems. Comput. J. 42(8), 674–692 (1999)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee, I., Yeom, H.Y.: A Single Phase Distributed Commit Protocol for Main Memory Database Systems. 16th International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS 2002), Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Misikangas, P.: 2PL and its variants. Seminar on Real-Time Systems, Department of Computer Science, University of Helsinki (1997)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mohan, C., Lindsay, B., Obermarck, R.: Transaction management in the R* distributed database management system. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 11(4), 378–396 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Qin, B., Liu, Y.: High performance distributed real time commit protocol. J. Syst. Software, Elsevier Science Inc, 1–8 (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Qin, B., Liu, Y., Yang. J.C.: A commit strategy for distributed real-time transaction. J. Comput. Sci. Tech. 18(5), 626–631 (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rajkumar, R.: Task Synchronization in real time systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Carnegie-Mellon University (1989)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ramamritham, K., Chrysanthis, P.K.: A taxonomy of correctness criteria in database applications. VLDB Journal, 5, 85–97 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sha, L., Rajkumar, R., Lehoczky, J.P.: Concurrency control for distributed real time data bases. ACM SIGMOD Record 17(1), 82–98 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shanker, U., Misra, M., Sarje, A.K.: Dependency sensitive distributed commit protocol. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Technology (CIT 05), pp. 41–46, Bhubaneswar, India (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shanker, U., Misra, M., Sarje, A.K.: Some performance issues in distributed real time database systems. In: Proceedings of the VLDB PhD Workshop (2006), the Convention and Exhibition Center (COEX), Seoul, Korea (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shanker, U., Misra, M., Sarje, A.K.: SWIFT-A new real time commit protocol. Int. J. Distrib. Parallel Databases 20(1), 29–56 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shanker, U., Misra, M., Sarje, A.K., Shisondia, R.: Dependency sensitive shadow SWIFT. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Database Applications and Engineering Symposium (IDEAS 06), pp. 373–276, Delhi, India (2006)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shanker, U., Misra, M., Sarje, A.K.: Distributed real time database systems: background and literature review. Int. J. Distrib. Parallel Databases 23(2), 127–149 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Skeen, D.: Nonblocking commit protocols. In: Proceedings of the 1981 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, pp. 133–142, New York (1981)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Soparkar, N., Levy, E.H., Korth, F., Silberschatz, A.: Adaptive Commitment for Real-Time Distributed Transaction. Technical Report TR-92-15, Department of Computer Science, University of Texax, Austin (1992)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ulusoy, O.: Concurrency Control in Real Time Database Systems. PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (1992)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Vienna 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of CSEM.M.M. Engg. CollegeGorakhpurIndia
  2. 2.ICT StreamABV IIITMGwaliorIndia

Personalised recommendations