Immunological Response in Early Brain Injury After SAH

  • Takumi SozenEmail author
  • Reiko Tsuchiyama
  • Yu Hasegawa
  • Hidenori Suzuki
  • Vikram Jadhav
  • Shigeru Nishizawa
  • John H. Zhang
Part of the Acta Neurochirurgica Supplements book series (NEUROCHIRURGICA, volume 110/1)


This study summarized the role of inflammation in the early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Elevation of cytokines, activation of MMPs and phosphorylation of MAPK contributes to neuronal apoptosis and brain edema. Anti-inflammation may be potential strategy for the prevention and suppression of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage.


Early brain injury Immune Inflammation 



This study was partially supported by grants (NS053407) from the National Institutes of Health to J.H.Z.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takumi Sozen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Reiko Tsuchiyama
    • 3
  • Yu Hasegawa
    • 3
  • Hidenori Suzuki
    • 3
  • Vikram Jadhav
    • 3
  • Shigeru Nishizawa
    • 2
  • John H. Zhang
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Occupational and Environmental HealthKitakyushuJapan
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Occupational and Environmental HealthJapan
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyLoma Linda University of MedicineLoma LindaUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryLoma Linda University of MedicineLoma LindaUSA

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