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Latest trends in the national authorisation and regulation of space activities in Europe

  • Irmgard Marboe
  • Florian Hafner
Part of the Yearbook on Space Policy book series (YEARSPACE)

Abstract

In the past few years, more and more States have become aware of the need to regulate and control outer space activities. One of the reasons for this increasing interest is the growing importance of private space activities. While twenty years ago only States were able to conduct space operations, nowadays private companies all over the world are actively involved in this growing branch of business. Today, privately operated satellites are no longer a rarity, and it is even possible to buy “vacation trips” into outer space via travel agencies.611 The future development of technical progress and the growing experience will allow private space activities to expand further. As a result of this, the number and complexity of rules and regulations in the field of space law will multiply.

Keywords

Space Activity Space Object Outer Space National Space Late Trend 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 611.
    The operator of the online travel agency German Unister GmbH for example, offers a suborbital flight at the price of 102,000 dollars. This suborbital flight is operated by Space Adventures Ltd. and shall be conducted from 2010 onwards. See Ab-in-den-urlaub.de website. 28 Aug. 2009. http://www.ab-in-den-urlaub.de/weltraumreisen.htm.
  2. 612.
    This concerns (1) the Treaty on Principles governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (hereafter Outer Space Treaty), London/Moscow/Washington, done 27 January 1967, entered into force 10 October 1967,610 UNTS 205, 6 ILM 386 (1967); (2) the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (hereafter Rescue Agreement), London/Moscow/ Washington, done 22 April 1968, entered into force 3 December 1968, 672 UNTS 119, 7 ILM 151 (1968); (3) the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (hereafter Liability Convention), London/Moscow/Washington, done 29 March 1972, entered into force 1 September 1972, 961 UNTS 187, 10 ILM 965 (1971); (4) the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (hereafter Registration Convention), New York, done 14 January 1975, entered into force 15 September 1976, 1023 UNTS 15, 14 ILM 43 (1975); and (5) the Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (hereafter Mon Agreement), New York, done 18 December 1979, entered into force 11 July 1984, 1363 UNTS 3,18 ILM 1434 (1979).Google Scholar
  3. 613.
    See Outer Space Treaty.Google Scholar
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    Kayser, Valérie. “Commercial Exploitation of Space: Developing Domestic Regulation.” Annals of Air and Space Law 17.1 (1992): 190. Some others are, however, of another opinion. See Bourély, Michel. “Quelques Réflexions au Sujet des Législations Spatiales Nationales.” Annals of Air and Space Law 16.1 (1991): 247.Google Scholar
  5. 615.
    See Von der Dunk, Frans G. “Implementing the United Nations Outer Space Treaties — The Case of the Netherlands.” National Space Law-Development in Europe — Challenges for Small Countries. Eds. Christian Brüunnerand Edith Walter. Graz: Böohlau, 2008: 83–84; Hermida,Julian. Legal Basis for a National Space Legislation. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004: 29-30.Google Scholar
  6. 616.
    Norway enacted its space act in 1969, Sweden in 1982, and the U.K. in 1986.Google Scholar
  7. 617.
    Hereafter Belgian Space Act. For the text of the law see Bockstiegel, Karl-Heinz, Benkö, Marietta, and Hobe, Stephan. Space Law — Basic Legal Documents. Volume 5. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing, 2008. E.X.; National Space Law — Development in Europe — Challenges for Small Countries. Eds. Christian Brünner and Edith Walter. Graz: Böhlau, 2008: 183-194; The Belgian Federal Science Policy Office. 28 Aug. 2009. http://www.belspo.be/belspo/res/rech/spatres/loispat_en.stm.Google Scholar
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    Mayence, Jean-François. “Introduction to the Belgian Law on the Activities of Launching, Flight Operations or Guidance of Space Objects.” Space Law—Basic Legal Documents. Volume 5. Eds. Karl-Heinz Böckstiegel, Marietta Benko and Stephan Hobe. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing, 2008. E.X.Google Scholar
  9. 619.
    Royal Decree implementing certain provisions of the law of 17 September 2005 on the activities of launching, flight operations and guidance of space objects (hereafter Royal Decree). For the text of the decree see National Space Law — Development in Europe — Challenges for Small Countries. Eds. Christian Brunner and Edith Walter. Graz: Böhlau, 2008: 195–200; Belgian Federal Science Policy Office. 28 Aug. 2009. http://www.belspo.be/belspo/res/rech/spatres/loispat_en.stm.Google Scholar
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    Mayence, Jean-François. “Introduction to the Belgian Law on the Activities of Launching, Flight Operations or Guidance of Space Objects.” Space Law-Basic Legal Documents. Volume 5. Eds. Karl-Heinz Böckstiegel, Marietta Benkö and Stephan Hobe. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing, 2008. Hereafter Dutch Space Activities Act. For the text of the law see Böckstiegel, Karl-Heinz, Benkö, Marietta, and Hobe, Stephan. Space Law — Basic Legal Documents. Volume 5. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing, 2008. E.XIV; National Space Law — Development in Europe — Challenges for Small Countries. Eds. Christian Brünner and Edith Walter. Graz: Böhlau, 2008: 201-210.Google Scholar
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    De Brabander-Ypes, Heleen. “Introduction to the Law Incorporating Rules Concerning Space Activities and the Establishment of a Registry for Space Objects.” Space Law— Basic Legal Documents. Volume 5. Eds. Karl-Heinz Bockstiegel, Marietta Benkö and Stephan Hobe. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing, 2008. E.XIV.Google Scholar
  13. 624.
    De Brabander-Ypes, Heleen. “The Netherlands Space Law — An introduction to contents and dilemma’s.” Presentation. 47th session of the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Vienna, Austria. 28 Aug. 2009. http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/pdf/pres/lsc2008/pres-02.pdf.
  14. 625.
    Aruba declared that it would ban space activities completely and the Dutch Antilles will draft their own space legislation on the basis of the Dutch Space Activities Act. De Brabander-Ypes, Heleen. “Introduction to the LawIncorporating Rules Concerning Space Activities and the Establishment of a Registry for Space Objects.” Space Law — Basic Legal Documents. Volume 5. Eds. Karl-Heinz Bockstiegel, Marietta Benkö and Stephan Hobe. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing, 2008. E.XIV.Google Scholar
  15. 626.
  16. 627.
    Hereafter French Space Operations Act. For the text of the law see United Nations General Assembly. Conference Room Paper Containing Information on the National Legislation of France Relevant to the Peaceful Exploration and Use of Outer Space. UN Doc. A/AC.105/C.2/2009/ CRP.18. Vienna: United Nations.; National Space Law — Development in Europe — Challenges for Small Countries. Eds. Christian Brünner and Edith Walter. Graz: Böhlau, 2008: 211-224.Google Scholar
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    Clerc, Philippe. “The French Space Operation Act.” Presentation. 48th session of the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Vienna, Austria. 28 Aug. 2009. http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/pdf/pres/lsc2009/pres-04.pdf.
  18. 629.
    Couston, Mireille. “Introduction to the French Space Operation Act.” Space Law-Basic Legal Documents. Volume 5. Ed. Karl-Heinz Böckstiegel, Marietta Benko and Stephan Hobe. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing, 2008. E.XVI.Google Scholar
  19. 630.
    Van Traa-Engelman and Louise Hanneke. Commercial utilization of outer space. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993: 62–63; Reijnen, Bess C.M. The United Nations Space Treaties Analysed. Gif-sur-yvette: Editions Frontières, 1992: 114; Cheng, Bin. “Article VI of the 1767 Space Treaty Revisited: “International Responsibility”, “National Activities”, and the “Appropriate State”.” Journal of Space Law 26.1 (1998): 14.Google Scholar
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    According to Article 31 of the Vienna Convention of the Law of Treaties, a treaty should be interpreted in good faith in accordance with the ordinary meaning to be given to it in its context and in the light of its object and purpose.Google Scholar
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    See Reijnen, Bess C.M. The United Nations Space Treaties Analysed. Gif-sur-yvette: Editions Frontières, 1992: 114–115; Wassenbergh, Henri A. Principles of Outer Space Law in Hindsight. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991: 25.Google Scholar
  22. 633.
    Dutch Space Activities Act. Chapter 1, Section 1.Google Scholar
  23. 634.
    French Space Operations Act. Title 2, Chapter 1, Article 1.Google Scholar
  24. 635.
    Belgian Space Act. Chapter 1, Article 2.Google Scholar
  25. 636.
    French Space Operations Act. Title 2, Chapter 1, Article 2.Google Scholar
  26. 637.
    Dutch Space Activities Act. Chapter 1, Section 1.Google Scholar
  27. 638.
    At the moment this is the Minister for Federal Scientific Policy. See Mayence, Jean-François. “The Belgian Space Law.” Presentation. 48th session of the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Vienna, Austria. 28 Aug. 2009. http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/pdf/pres/lsc2009/pres-08.pdf.
  28. 639.
    Dutch Space Activities Act. Chapter 1, Section 1.Google Scholar
  29. 640.
    Royal Decree. Chapter 2, Article 2.Google Scholar
  30. 641.
    Hermida, Julian. Legal Basis for a National Space Legislation. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004: 34.Google Scholar
  31. 642.
    Belgian Space Act. Chapter 1, Article 2.Google Scholar
  32. 643.
    Dutch Space Activities Act. Chapter 2, Section 3.Google Scholar
  33. 644.
    French Space Operations Act. Title 1, Article 1 and Title 2, Article 2.Google Scholar
  34. 645.
    See Article 1 Registration Convention and Article 1 Liability Convention.Google Scholar
  35. 646.
    Belgian Space Act. Chapter 1, Article 2.Google Scholar
  36. 647.
    Ibid. Chapter 1, Article 3.Google Scholar
  37. 648.
    French Space Operations Act. Title 1, Article 1.Google Scholar
  38. 649.
    Dutch Space Activities Act. Chapter 1, Section 1; De Brabander-Ypes, Heleen. “The Netherlands Space Law — An introduction to contents and dilemma’s.” Presentation. 47th session of the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Vienna, Austria. 28 Aug. 2009. http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/pdf/pres/lsc2008/pres-02.pdf.
  39. 650.
    See Belgian Space Act. Chapter 1, Article 2; Dutch Space Activities Act. Chapter 1, Section 1.Google Scholar
  40. 651.
    Law on Space Activity of Ukraine of 15 November 1996 as amended 2000 and 2006, Section 1. For the text of the law see Böckstiegel, Karl-Heinz, Benkö, Marietta, and Hobe, Stephan. Space Law — Basic Legal Documents. Volume 5. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing, 2008. E.VIII.Google Scholar
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    Cheng, Bin. “Article VI of the 1767 Space Treaty Revisited: “International Responsibility”, “National Activities”, and the “Appropriate State”.” Journal of Space Law 26.1 (1998): 13–14.Google Scholar
  42. 653.
    Kopal, Vladimir. “International Legal Regime on Outer Space: Outer Space Treaty, Rescue Agreement and the Moon Agreement.” Proceedings of the United Nations/Nigeria Workshop on Space Law — Meeting international responsibilities and addressing domestic needs. Ed. United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. Vienna: United Nations, 2005: 8–10.Google Scholar
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    Gerhard, Michael. Nationale Weltraumgesetzgebung. Koln: Carl Heymanns Verlag, 2002: 81.Google Scholar
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    Bourbonnière, Michel and Ricky J., Lee. “Legality of the Deployment of Conventional Weapons in Earth Orbit: Balancing Space Law and the Law of Armed Conflict.” European Journal of International Law 18.5 (2007): 883–884; Gorove, Stephen. “Implications of International Space Law for Private Enterprise.” Annals Air & Space Law 7.1 (1982): 321.Google Scholar
  45. 656.
    This is the case in Belgium where Chapter 3, Article 11 of the Belgian Space Act provides for the suspension or withdrawal of the license. See Belgian Space Act. Also the Netherlands allow the withdrawal of authorisation by their competent authorities. See Dutch Space Activities Act. Chapter 2, Section 7. For France see the French Space Operations Act. Chapter IV, Article 9.Google Scholar
  46. 657.
    Belgian Space Act. Chapter 7, Article 19.Google Scholar
  47. 658.
    French Space Operations Act. Title 1, Chapter 4, Article 11.Google Scholar
  48. 659.
    Dutch Space Activities Act. Chapter 5, Section 15. It has to be noted that the Dutch Space Activities Act deals with the enforcement-topic in a very comprehensive way. 11 out of the total 2 8 Sections deal with the question of enforcement.Google Scholar
  49. 660.
    Belgian Space Act. Chapter 7, Article 19.Google Scholar
  50. 661.
    See, for example, Gerhard, Michael and Kai-Uwe Schrogl. “Report of the “Project 2001 ” Working Group on National Space Legislation.” “Project 2001” — Legal Framework for the Commercial Use of Outer Space. Eds. Karl-Heinz Böckstiegel. Köln: Carl Heymanns Verlag, 2002: 529; Hobe, Stephan, Bernhard Schmidt-Tedd and Kai-Uwe Schrogl, eds. “Project 2001 Plus” — Global and European Challenges for Air and Space Law at the Edge of the 21st Century. Vol. 4. Köln: Carl Heymanns Verlag, 2004.Google Scholar
  51. 662.
    Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, signed at Lisbon, 13 December 2007. OJ No. C 306 of 17 December 2007.Google Scholar
  52. 663.
    Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Article 4(3).Google Scholar
  53. 664.
    Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, signed in Rome on 29 October 2004. OJ No. C 310.Google Scholar
  54. 665.
    This e contrario argument was put forward by Sergio Marchisio with regard to the Draft Constitution. See Marchisio, Sergio. “Potential European Space Policy and its Impact on National Space Legislation.” “Project 2001 Plus” — Global and European Challenges for Air and Space Law at the Edge of the 21st Century. Vol. 4. Eds. Hobe, Stephan, Bernhard Schmidt-Tedd and Kai-Uwe Schrogl. Koln: Carl Heymanns Verlag, 2004: 145, 150.Google Scholar
  55. 666.
    The working group on National Legislation Relevant to the Peaceful Exploration and Use of Outer Space was chaired by Irmgard Marboe (Austria) and held six meetings, from 31 March to 3 April 2009. For the detailed report of the working group see United Nations General Assembly. Report of the Legal Subcommittee on its Forty-Eight Session, Held in Vienna from 23 March to 3 April 2009. UN Doc. A/ AC 105/935 of 20 April 2009. Vienna: United Nations.Google Scholar
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  58. 669.
  59. 670.
  60. 671.
  61. 672.
  62. 673.
  63. 674.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irmgard Marboe
  • Florian Hafner

There are no affiliations available

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