The diurnal pattern of some physiological and psychological functions in permanent night workers and in men working on a two-shift (day and night) system
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Adjustment of circadian rhythms to phase shifts has been studied in two essentially different conditions. While trans-zonal air travels involve a sudden change in all Zeitgebers, adjustment to unusual work/rest schedules is normally counteracted by many important environmental time cues like the alternation between light and darkness, and the social surroundings including the family. Several studies have shown that in the more optimal conditions of air travel, phase adjustment usually requires a few days (1); for some physiological functions the time taken is even longer.
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