Further Computing Elements

  • Cornelia Denz


With the basic components described in the last chapters — interconnection and storage devices in chapter 4 and thresholding elements in chapter 5 — we are in principle able to build different simple neural network systems which would be able to perform associative tasks, feature extraction or solve nonlinear decision problems. However, for a large range of more complex networks as e.g. all multilayer networks using error backpropagation, it is convenient to have recursion to a number of computational functions that enable to detect and process differences between the desired and the actual output or that visualize temporal changes in the two-dimensional representation of the input.


Diffraction Efficiency Saturable Absorber Ring Resonator Reference Beam Pump Wave 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Further Reading

  1. 1.
    F.T.S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, Optical Signal Processing, Computing and Neural Networks, Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering, New York (1992) . A basic and easy-to-read introduction to optical signal processing, combined with actual application examples. The chapters on Photorefractive signal processing and Optical neural networks give a good overview over the topic.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Javidi, J.L. Horner (eds.), Real-time Optical Information Processing, Academic Press, San Diego (1994) . Among the important chapters in that overview, you will found Fixed hologram neural networks by D. Casasent, Holographic neural networks based on multigrating processes by Y. Owechko, B. Soffer, and Optical Phase Conjugation for Interconnection and Image Processing by P. Yeh, A. Chiou.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light, Academic Press, New York (1985) . An easy-to-read introduction to all possibilities of light-light interaction with special emphasize on optical bistability.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.D. McAulay, Optical Computer Architectures, Wiley & Sons (1991). This book provides the theory, hardware design techniques, and lot of examples of the application of optical concepts to computing.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. Fischer, S. Sternklar, S. Weiss, Photorefractive Oscillators, IEEE QE 25(3) (1989). A concise review article on photorefractive oscillators, the mutual light-crystal interactions and oscillator applications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cornelia Denz
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Angewandte Optik, AG Photorefraktive OptikTechnische Universität DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

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