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Surveying in the broadest possible sense covers many forms, including geodetic, hydrographical, topographical, cadastral, mining and engineering. Geodetic surveying is carried out on extremely large areas of land, where the earth’s spheroidal shape has to be taken into account. Such surveying forms the basis for less extensive surveys within these larger areas. Hydrographical surveying is employed solely on the sea and other expanses of water. For producing maps depicting the principal ground features of towns, villages, roadways, rivers, forests, and the like, topographical surveying is employed, whereas cadastral surveying is adopted for plans specifically indicating boundaries between properties and other associated features. Mining surveying, as the name implies, is purely for mining work.
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