Biotransformation and Potential Adverse Effects of Rare Earth Oxide Nanoparticles
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Rare earth elements, also known as lanthanides, consist of 17 rare earth elements including cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), lanthanum (La), lutetium (Lu), neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), terbium (Tb), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and yttrium (Y). They are useful at the nanoscale in a variety of industrial applications due to their magnetic, optical, and electronic properties. Furthermore, rare earth elements can be doped onto a host lattice to combine and harness their luminescence properties to enhance efficiency, which is called upconversion used in bioimaging. This chapter explores the biotransformation, translocation, and potential adverse effects of rare earth nanomaterials in plants and animals. Biotransformation occurs via a biochemical modification by living organisms or the ambient environmental media that can modify the toxicity and influence the fate of the material in the organism.
This work was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, under Award No. R01 HL139379, and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences at the National Institutes of Health, under Award Nos. U01 ES027237 and R01 ES022698. Leveraged support for characterization equipment used in this study was provided by the National Science Foundation and the Environmental Protection Agency under Award No. DBI-1266377. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH, NSF, or EPA.
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