Bedeutung von Präferenzen für Spielelemente – Analyse und Empfehlungen für die Anpassung von Spielelementen durch Nutzerpräferenzen

  • Sofia SchöbelEmail author
  • Matthias Söllner
Part of the Kompetenzmanagement in Organisationen book series (KOOR)


Gamification gehört zu einer der bekanntesten Methoden, um Nutzer/-innen von Informationssystemen zu einer regelmäßigeren Nutzung zu motivieren. Dieses wird oftmals auch für Lernmanagementsysteme (LMS) eingesetzt, um Nutzer/-innen durch die Integration von Spielelementen zu einer regelmäßigen Systemnutzung zu motivieren. Auch wenn die Methode oft Anklang findet, werden besonders Nutzer/-innen nicht bei der Gestaltung von Gamification-Ansätzen berücksichtigt. Häufig werden Spielelemente in Informationssysteme integriert, ohne zu berücksichtigen, ob die identifizierten und kombinierten Spielelemente zu der anvisierten Zielgruppe und dem Kontext passen. In diesem Kapitel wird eine Möglichkeit vorgestellt, mit der Nutzerpräferenzen bei Spielelementen erfasst werden können. Dazu wird das sogenannte „Best-Worst-Scaling“ in Verbindung mit einer Kombinationsanalyse genutzt, um Erkenntnisse über Nutzerpräferenzen von Lernenden in Bezug auf Spielelemente zu erhalten.


  1. 1.
    Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Research commentary: Technology-mediated learning – A call for greater depth and breadth of research. Information Systems Research, 12(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Attali, Y., & Areli-Attali, M. (2015). Gamification in assessment: Do points affect test performance. Computers & Education, 83, 57–63.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bacon, D. R. (2003). A comparison of approaches to importance-performance analysis. International Journal of Market Research, 45(1), 55–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bedwell, W. L., Pavlas, D., Heyne, K., Lazzara, E. H., & Salas, E. (2012). Toward a taxonomy linking game attributes to Learning: An empirical study. Simulation & Gaming, 43(6), 729–760.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blohm, I., & Leimeister, J. M. (2013). Gamification: Design of IT-based enhancing services for motivational support and behavioral change. Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE), 5(4), 275–278.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bunchball, I. (2010). Gamification 101: An introduction to the use of game dynamics to influence behavior. Des Moines: White Paper, Bunchball Inc.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burgers, C., Eden, A., van Engelenburg, M. D., & Buningh, S. (2015). How feedback boosts motivation in play in a brain-training game. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 94–103.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Christy, K. R., & Fox, J. (2014). Leaderboards in a virtual classroom: A test of stereotype threat and social comparison explanations for women’s math performance. Computers & Education, 78, 66–77.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cohen, S. H. (2003). Maximum difference scaling: Improved measures of importance and preferences for segmentation. Sawtooth Research Paper Series, S. 1–17.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cruz, C., Hanus, M. D., & Fox, J. (2015). The need to achieve: Players’ perceptions and uses of extrinsic meta-game reward systems for video game consoles. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 1–9.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davis, K., & Singh, S. (2015). Digital badges in afterschool learning: Documenting the perspectives and experiences of students and educators. Computers & Education, 88, 72–83.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    de-Marcos, L., Garcia-Lopez, E., & Garcia-Cabot, A. (2016). On the effectiveness of game-like and social approaches in learning: Comparing educational gaming, gamification & social networking. Computers & Education, 95, 99–113.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Demetrovics, Z., Urbán, R., Nagygyörgy, K., Farkas, J., Zilahy, D., Mervó, B., et al. (2011). Why do you play? The development of the motives for online gaming questionnaire (MOGQ). Behavior research methods, 43(3), 814–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”. In Proceedings of the 15th international academic MindTrek conference envisioning future media environments (S. 9–15).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Domínguez, A., Saenz-de-Navarrete, J., de-Marcos, L., Fernández-Sanz, L., Páges, C., & Martínez-Herráiz, J.-J. (2013). Gamifying learning experiences: Practical implications and outcomes. Computers & Education, 63, 380–392.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fernandes, J., Duarte, D., Ribeiro, C., Farinha, C., Madeiras Pereira, J., & Mira da Silva, M. (2012). iThink: A game-based approach towards improving collaboration and participation in requirement elicitation. Procedia Computer Science, 15, 66–77.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Finn, A., & Louviere, J. J. (1992). Determining the Appropriate Response to Evidence of Public Concern: The Case of Food Safety. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 11(1), 12–25.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fleming, N. (2014). Gamification: Is it game over?
  20. 20.
    Flynn, T. N., Louviere, J. J., Peters, T. J., & Coast, J. (2007). Best-worst scaling: What it can do for health care research and how to do it. Journal of Health Economics, 26(1), 171–189.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fogel, G. (2015). Will 80% of gamification projects fail? Giving credit to Gartner’s 2012 gamification forecast.
  22. 22.
    Gartner. (2012). Gartner says by 2014, 80 percent of current gamified applications will fail to meet business objectives primarily due to poor design.
  23. 23.
    Green, P. E., & Srinivasan, V. (1990). Conjoint analysis in marketing: New developments with implications for research and practice. The Journal of Marketing, 54, 3–19.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gupta, S., & Bostrom, R. P. (2009). Technology-mediated learning: A comprehensive theoretical model. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 10(9), 686–714.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Haaranen, L., Ihantola, P., Hakulinen, L., & Korhonen, A. (2014). How (not) to introduce badges to online exercises. In Proceedings of the 45th ACM technical symposium on computer science education (ACM) (S. 33–38).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hair, J. F. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Harlow: Pearson College Division.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. A Global Perspective. New Jersey: Pearson.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hamari, J. (2013). Transforming homo economicus into homo ludens: A field experiment on gamification in a utilitarian peer-to-peer trading service. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12(4), 236–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hanus, M. D., & Fox, J. (2015). Assessing the effects of gamification in the classroom: A longitudinal study on intrinsic motivation, social comparison, satisfaction, effort and academic performance. Computers & Education, 80, 152–161.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ibánez, M.-B., Di-Serio, Á., & Delgado-Kloos, C. (2014). Gamification for engaging computer science students in learning activities: A case study. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 7(3), 291–301.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jones, B. A., Madden, G. J., Wengreen, M., & Heidi J. (2014). The FIT Game: Preliminary evaluation of a gamification approach to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in school. Preventive Medicine, 68, 76–79.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Koivisto, J., & Hamari, J. (2014). Demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification. Computer in Human behavior, 35, 179–188.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lansing, J., Schneider, S., & Sunyaev, A. (2013). Cloud service certification: Measuring consumers’ preferences for assurances european conference on information systems (S. 1–12).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lee, J. J., Ceyhan, P., Jordan-Cooley, W., & Sung, W. (2013). GREENIFY: A real-world action game for climate change education. Simulation & Gaming, 44(2–3), 349–365.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liu, D., Li, X., & Santhanam, R. (2013). Digital games and beyond: What happens when players compete. MIS Quarterly, 37(1), 111–124.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Louviere, J. J., Lings, I., Islam, T., Gudergan, S., & Flynn, T. (2013). An introduction to the application of (case 1) best-worst scaling in marketing research. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 30, 292–303.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Marley, A. A. J., & Louviere, J. J. (2005). Some probabilistic models of best, worst, and best–worst choices. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 49(6), 464–480.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Matzner, M., Hoffen, M. von, Heide, T., Plenter, F., & Chasin, F. (2015). A method for measuring user preferences in information systems design choices. In European conference on information systems (S. 1–16).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    McKernan, B., Martey, R. M., Stromer-Galley, J., Kenski, K., Clegg, B. A., Folkestad, J. E., et al. (2015). We don’t need no stinkin’badges: The impact of reward features and feeling rewarded in educational games. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mekler, E. D., Brühlmann, F., Tuch, A. N., & Opwis, K. (2015). Towards understanding the effects of individual gamification elements on intrinsic motivation and performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 1–10.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Melero, J., Hernándes-Leo, D., & Manatunga, K. (2015). Group-based mobile learning: Do group size and sharing mobile devices matter? Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 377–385.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mummendey, H. D. (1990). Psychologie der Selbstdarstellung, Göttingen: Hogrefe Verlag.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Orme, B. (2005). Accuracy of HB estimation in MaxDiff experiments. Sawtooth Research Paper Series, S. 1–7.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Passos, E. B., Medeiros, D. B., Neto, P. A. S., & Clua, E. W. G. (2011). Turning real-world software development into a game. In Proceedings of SBGames (S. 260–269).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pedro, L., Santos, Carlos, Aresta, Mónica, & Almeida, S. (2015). Peer-supported badge attribution in a collaborative learning platform: A SAPO campus case. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 562–567.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Peham, M., Breitfuss, G., & Michalczuk, R. (2014). The “ecoGator” app: Gamification for enhanced energy efficiency in Europe. In Proceedings of the second international conference on technological ecosystems for enhancing multiculturality. ACM (S. 179–183).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Santhanam, R., Liu, D., & Wei-Cheng, M. S. (2016). Gamification of technology-mediated training: Not all competitions are the same. Information Systems Research, 1–13.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schlagenhaufer, C., & Amberg, M. (2015). A descriptive literature review and classification framework for gamification in information systems. In European Conference on Information Systems.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schöbel, S., & Söllner, M. (2016). How to gamify information systems – Adapting gamification to individual user preferences. In European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Seaborn, K., & Fels, D. I. (2015). Gamification in theory and action: A survey. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 74, 14–31.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Severin, F., Schmidtke, J., Mühlbacher, A., & Rogowski, W. H. (2013). Eliciting preferences for priority setting in genetic testing: A pilot study comparing best-worst scaling and discrete-choice experiment. European Journal of Human Genetics, 21(11), 1202–1208.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sims, R. (2003). Promises of interactivity: Aligning learner perceptions and expectations with strategies for flexible and online learning. Distance Education, 24(1), 87–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Thiebes, S., Lins, S., & Basten, D. (2014). Gamifying information systems: A synthesis of gamification mechanics and dynamics. In European Conference on Information Systems.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Urh, M., Vukovic, G., & Jereb, E. (2015). The model for introduction of gamification into e-learning in higher education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 388–397.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wang, A. I. (2015). The wear out effect of a game-based student response system. Computers & Education, 82, 217–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fachgebiet WirtschaftsinformatikUniversität KasselKasselDeutschland
  2. 2.Fachgebiet Wirtschaftsinformatik und SystementwicklungUniversität KasselKasselDeutschland

Personalised recommendations