Visualizing Data

  • Stephen LymanEmail author
  • Naomi Roselaar
  • Chisa Hidaka


Outstanding tables and figures are essential to ensure audiences understand your research quickly and accurately, whether they are viewing your paper, poster, or presentation. The hierarchy of human graphical perception ability, as described by Cleveland and McGill (J Am Stat Assoc 79(387):531–554, 1985), can be used to achieve the two major principles of data visualization, put forth by information design pioneer Edward Tufte: Graphical Excellence and Visual Integrity. These principles can help researchers create effective graphs and charts. While graphs and charts are able to convey complex information more efficiently than tables, good tables make individual data values available to the reader.


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Copyright information

© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hospital for Special SurgeryNew YorkUSA

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