Transkulturelle Aspekte von Diagnostik und Begutachtung bei Gewaltfolgen

  • Thomas Wenzel
  • Sabine Parrag
  • Sofia Kuhn-Natriashvili
  • Maria Kletečka-Pulker
Part of the Psychosomatik im Zentrum book series (PSZE, volume 2)


Transkulturelle Aspekte spielen eine wesentliche Rolle in der Diagnostik, im Verständnis und in der Behandlung von Menschen, die als Migranten oder Flüchtlinge nach Europa kommen. Unterschiede beziehen sich auf die Formen der Belastungen, die kulturabhängigen Reaktionen und Belastungsverarbeitung sowie auf die Behandlung. In der Kulturanthropologie bekannte Konzepte wie das der «Idioms of Distress» als kulturabhängige Belastungsformen haben in den letzten Jahren zunehmend auch Eingang in die Standard-Diagnosesysteme gefunden. Auch in der Begutachtung sollte dies vermehrt Berücksichtigung finden. Am Beispiel belastungsabhängiger Erkrankungen kann die konkrete Anwendung und Relevanz kultursensitiver Modelle in der Arbeit mit den angesprochenen Gruppen anhand einer integrativen und interdisziplinären Analyse verdeutlicht werden.


  1. Aggarwal NK, Desilva R, Nicasio AV, Boiler M, Lewis-Fernandez R (2015) Does the Cultural Formulation Interview for the fifth revision of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) affect medical communication? A qualitative exploratory study from the New York site. Ethn Health 20 (1): 1–28. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2013.857762
  2. Aggarwal NK, Nicasio AV, DeSilva R, Boiler M, Lewis-Fernandez R (2013) Barriers to implementing the DSM-5 cultural formulation interview: a qualitative study. Cult Med Psychiatry 37 (3): 505–533. doi: 10.1007/s11013–013–9325-z
  3. Alemi Q, Weller SC, Montgomery S, James S (2017) Afghan Refugee Explanatory Models of Depression: Exploring Core Cultural Beliefs and Gender Variations. Med Anthropol Q 31 (2): 177–197. doi: 10.1111/maq.12296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baines E (2010) Spirits and social reconstruction after mass violence: rethinking transitional justice. Afr Aff (Lond) 109 (436): 409–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Basu G, Costa VP, Jain P (2017) Clinicians’ Obligations to Use Qualified Medical Interpreters When Caring for Patients with Limited English Proficiency. AMA J Ethics 19 (3): 245–252. doi: 10.1001/journalofethics.2017.19.3.ecas2–1703
  6. Bischoff A, Bovier PA, Rrustemi I, Gariazzo F, Eytan A, Loutan L (2003) Language barriers between nurses and asylum seekers: their impact on symptom reporting and referral. Soc Sci Med 57 (3): 503–512Google Scholar
  7. Cacciatore J, Thieleman K (2014) We rise out of the cradle into the grave: an ethnographic exploration of ritual, mourning, and death on a Hutterite colony. Omega (Westport) 69 (4): 357–379. doi: 10.2190/OM.69.4.bCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Caplan EM (1995) Trains, brains, and sprains: railway spine and the origins of psychoneuroses. Bull Hist Med 69 (3): 387–419Google Scholar
  9. Clark MH (1989) Nevra in a Greek village: idiom, metaphor, symptom, or disorder? Health Care Women Int 10 (2–3): 195–218. doi: 10.1080/07399338909515850
  10. Clement R, Lebosse D, Barrios L, Rodat O (2016) Asylum seekers alleging torture in their countries: Evaluation of a French center. J Forensic Leg Med 46: 24–29. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2016.12.011
  11. Crossman KL, Wiener E, Roosevelt G, Bajaj L, Hampers LC (2010) Interpreters: telephonic, in-person interpretation and bilingual providers. Pediatrics 125 (3): e631–638. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009–0769
  12. Davis CS, Quinlan MM, Baker DK (2016) Constructing the dead: Retrospective sensemaking in eulogies. Death Stud 40 (5): 316–328. doi: 10.1080/07481187.2016.1141261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. de Jong JT, Reis R (2010) Kiyang-yang, a West-African postwar idiom of distress. Cult Med Psychiatry 34 (2): 301–321. doi: 10.1007/s11013–010–9178–7
  14. den Otter JJ, Smit Y, dela Cruz LB, Ozkalipci O, Oral R (2013) Documentation of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of children: A review of existing guidelines and tools. Forensic Sci Int 224 (1–3): 27–32. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.11.003
  15. Diaz E, Anez LM, Silva M, Paris M, Davidson L (2017) Using the Cultural Formulation Interview to Build Culturally Sensitive Services. Psychiatr Serv 68 (2): 112–114. doi: 10.1176/ Scholar
  16. Drozdek B (2015) Challenges in treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in refugees: towards integration of evidence-based treatments with contextual and culture-sensitive perspectives. Eur J Psychotraumatol 6: 24750. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v6.24750CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Eisenman DP, Keller AS, Kim G (2000) Survivors of torture in a general medical setting: how often have patients been tortured, and how often is it missed? West J Med 172 (5): 301–304Google Scholar
  18. Ellenberger HF (1970) The discovery of the unconscious; the history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Furtmayr H, Frewer A (2010) Documentation of torture and the Istanbul Protocol: applied medical ethics. Med Health Care Philos 13 (3): 279–286. doi: 10.1007/s11019–010–9248–1
  20. Groen S (2009) Recognizing cultural identity in mental health care: Rethinking the cultural formulation of a somali patient. Transcult Psychiatry 46 (3): 451–462. doi: 10.1177/1363461509343087CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hartman JJ (2014) Anna Freud and the Holocaust: mourning and survival guilt. Int J Psychoanal 95 (6): 1183–1210. doi: 10.1111/1745–8315.12250
  22. Hassan G, Kirmayer, LJ, Mekki-, Berrada A. Q C, el Chammay R, Deville-Stoetzel, JB. Y A, Jefee-Bahloul H, Barkeel-Oteo A, , Coutts A, Song S Ventevogel P (2015) Culture, Context and the Mental Health and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Syrians: A Review for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Staff working with Syrians Affected by Armed Conflict. UNHCR, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  23. Hassan G, Ventevogel P, Jefee-Bahloul H, Barkil-Oteo A, Kirmayer LJ (2016) Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Syrians affected by armed conflict. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 25 (2): 129–141. doi: 10.1017/S2045796016000044CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hinton DE, Barlow DH, Reis R, de Jong J (2016) A Transcultural Model of the Centrality of «Thinking a Lot» in Psychopathologies Across the Globe and the Process of Localization: A Cambodian Refugee Example. Cult Med Psychiatry 40 (4): 570–619. doi: 10.1007/s11013–016–9489–4
  25. Hinton DE, Pich V, Marques L, Nickerson A, Pollack MH (2010) Khyal attacks: a key idiom of distress among traumatized cambodia refugees. Cult Med Psychiatry 34 (2): 244–278. doi: 10.1007/s11013–010–9174-y
  26. Hodes R (1997) Cross-cultural medicine and diverse health beliefs. Ethiopians abroad. West J Med 166 (1): 29–36Google Scholar
  27. Huang YT, Phillips C (2009) Telephone interpreters in general practice - Bridging the barriers to their use. Aust Fam Physician 38 (6): 443–446Google Scholar
  28. Iacopino V, Ozkalipci O, Schlar C (1999) The Istanbul Protocol: international standards for the effective investigation and documentation of torture and ill treatment. Lancet 354 (9184): 1117Google Scholar
  29. Jansen M, Sue Tin A, Isaacs D (2017) Prolonged immigration detention, complicity and boycotts. J Med Ethics. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2016–104125
  30. Kalt A, Hossain M, Kiss L, Zimmerman C (2013) Asylum seekers, violence and health: a systematic review of research in high-income host countries. Am J Public Health 103 (3): e30–42. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.301136CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Keatley E, d’Alfonso A, Abeare C, Keller A, Bertelsen NS (2015) Health Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury Among Refugee Survivors of Torture. J Head Trauma Rehabil 30 (6): E1–8. doi: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Keller AS, Ford D, Sachs E, Rosenfeld B, Trinh-Shevrin C, Meserve C, Leviss JA, Singer E, Smith H, Wilkinson J, Kim G, Allden K, Rockline P (2003a) The impact of detention on the health of asylum seekers. J Ambul Care Manage 26 (4): 383–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Keller AS, Rosenfeld B, Trinh-Shevrin C, Meserve C, Sachs E, Leviss JA, Singer E, Smith H, Wilkinson J, Kim G, Allden K, Ford D (2003b) Mental health of detained asylum seekers. Lancet 362 (9397): 1721–1723. doi: 10.1016/S0140–6736 (03)14846–5
  34. Kindermann D, Schmid C, Derreza-Greeven C, Huhn D, Kohl RM, Junne F, Schleyer M, Daniels JK, Ditzen B, Herzog W, Nikendei C (2017) Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Secondary Traumatization in Interpreters for Refugees: A Cross-Sectional Study. Psychopathology 50 (4): 262–272. doi: 10.1159/000477670
  35. Kletecka-Pulker M, Parrag,S., Drozdek B, Wenzel T (2018) Language Barriers – A Challenge in the Work with Migrants and Refugees. In: Wenzel T, Drozdek B (Ed) Identifying needs, vulnerabilities, and resources in refugee persons and groups Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  36. Kohrt BA, Hruschka DJ (2010) Nepali concepts of psychological trauma: the role of idioms of distress, ethnopsychology and ethnophysiology in alleviating suffering and preventing stigma. Cult Med Psychiatry 34 (2): 322–352. doi: 10.1007/s11013–010–9170–2
  37. Kohrt BA, Rasmussen A, Kaiser BN, Haroz EE, Maharjan SM, Mutamba BB, de Jong JT, Hinton DE (2014) Cultural concepts of distress and psychiatric disorders: literature review and research recommendations for global mental health epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol 43 (2): 365–406. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt227CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Leal EM, Souza AN, Serpa ODJ, Oliveira IC, Dahl CM, Figueiredo AC, Salem S, Groleau D (2016) The McGill Illness Narrative Interview - MINI: translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Portuguese. Cien Saude Colet 21 (8): 2393–2402. doi: 10.1590/1413–81232015218.08612015
  39. Leon GR, Butcher JN, Kleinman M, Goldberg A, Almagor M (1981) Survivors of the holocaust and their children: current status and adjustment. J Pers Soc Psychol 41 (3): 503–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lewis-Fernandez R (2009) The cultural formulation. Transcult Psychiatry 46 (3): 379–382. doi: 10.1177/1363461509342519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lewis-Fernandez R, Aggarwal NK (2013) Culture and psychiatric diagnosis. Adv Psychosom Med 33: 15–30. doi: 10.1159/000348725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lewis-Fernandez R, Aggarwal NK, Baarnhielm S, Rohlof H, Kirmayer LJ, Weiss MG, Jadhav S, Hinton L, Alarcon RD, Bhugra D, Groen S, van Dijk R, Qureshi A, Collazos F, Rousseau C, Caballero L, Ramos M, Lu F (2014) Culture and psychiatric evaluation: operationalizing cultural formulation for DSM-5. Psychiatry 77 (2): 130–154. doi: 10.1521/psyc.2014.77.2.130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lewis-Fernandez R, Aggarwal NK, Lam PC, Galfalvy H, Weiss MG, Kirmayer LJ, Paralikar V, Deshpande SN, Diaz E, Nicasio AV, Boiler M, Alarcon RD, Rohlof H, Groen S, van Dijk RC, Jadhav S, Sarmukaddam S, Ndetei D, Scalco MZ, Bassiri K, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Ton H, Westermeyer J, Vega-Dienstmaier JM (2017) Feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the Cultural Formulation Interview: mixed-methods results from the DSM-5 international field trial. Br J Psychiatry 210 (4): 290–297. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.116.193862CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lobel TE, Kav-Venaki S, Yahia M (1985) Guilt feelings and locus of control of concentration camp survivors. Int J Soc Psychiatry 31 (3): 170–175. doi: 10.1177/002076408503100302
  45. Locatis C, Williamson D, Gould-Kabler C, Zone-Smith L, Detzler I, Roberson J, Maisiak R, Ackerman M (2010) Comparing in-person, video, and telephonic medical interpretation. J Gen Intern Med 25 (4): 345–350. doi: 10.1007/s11606–009–1236-x
  46. Locatis C, Williamson D, Sterrett J, Detzler I, Ackerman M (2011) Video medical interpretation over 3G cellular networks: a feasibility study. Telemed J E Health 17 (10): 809–813. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2011.0084
  47. Maciejewski PK, Maercker A, Boelen PA, Prigerson HG (2016) «Prolonged grief disorder» and «persistent complex bereavement disorder», but not «complicated grief», are one and the same diagnostic entity: an analysis of data from the Yale Bereavement Study. World Psychiatry 15 (3): 266–275. doi: 10.1002/wps.20348CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Mandel L, Worm L (2007) Documentation of torture victims, assessment of the start procedure for medico-legal documentation. Torture 17 (3): 196–202Google Scholar
  49. McKenzie KC, Thomas A (2017) Assisting asylum seekers in a time of global forced displacement: Five clinical cases. J Forensic Leg Med 49: 37–41. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2017.04.007CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Mills S, Xiao AQ, Wolitzky-Taylor K, Lim R, Lu FG (2017) Training on the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview improves cultural competence in general psychiatry residents: A pilot study. Transcult Psychiatry 54 (2): 179–191. doi: 10.1177/1363461517700812CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Mnkandla M, Nkala B (2013) A focus on solutions: the appropriate coping response to suffering and pain. Omega (Westport) 67 (3): 305–321. doi: 10.2190/OM.67.3.d
  52. Moayedoddin B, Markowitz JC (2015) Abnormal Grief: Should We Consider a More Patient-Centered Approach? Am J Psychother 69 (4): 361–378Google Scholar
  53. Mollica RF, Caspi-Yavin Y, Bollini P, Truong T, Tor S, Lavelle J (1992) The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Validating a cross-cultural instrument for measuring torture, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder in Indochinese refugees. J Nerv Ment Dis 180 (2): 111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mollica RF, Wyshak G, de Marneffe D, Khuon F, Lavelle J (1987) Indochinese versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25: a screening instrument for the psychiatric care of refugees. Am J Psychiatry 144 (4): 497–500. doi: 10.1176/ajp.144.4.497
  55. Neto F (2001) A short-form measure of loneliness among second-generation migrants. Psychol Rep 88 (1): 201–202. doi: 10.2466/pr0.2001.88.1.201CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Nichter M (1981) Idioms of distress: alternatives in the expression of psychosocial distress: a case study from South India. Cult Med Psychiatry 5 (4): 379–408Google Scholar
  57. Paralikar VP, Sarmukaddam SB, Patil KV, Nulkar AD, Weiss MG (2015) Clinical value of the cultural formulation interview in Pune, India. Indian J Psychiatry 57 (1): 59–67. doi: 10.4103/0019–5545.148524
  58. Patel V, Simunyu E, Gwanzura F (1995) Kufungisisa (thinking too much): a Shona idiom for non-psychotic mental illness. Cent Afr J Med 41 (7): 209–215Google Scholar
  59. Peart JM, Tracey EH, Lipoff JB (2016) The Role of Physicians in Asylum Evaluation: Documenting Torture and Trauma. JAMA Intern Med 176 (3): 417. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.0053CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Pedroso JL, Linden SC, Barsottini OG, Maranhao PF, Lees AJ (2017) The relationship between the First World War and neurology: 100 years of »Shell Shock”. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 75 (5): 317–319. doi: 10.1590/0004–282X20170046
  61. Pham PN, Vinck P, Weinstein HM (2010) Human rights, transitional justice, public health and social reconstruction. Soc Sci Med 70 (1): 98–105. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.09.039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rasmussen A, Katoni B, Keller AS, Wilkinson J (2011) Posttraumatic idioms of distress among Darfur refugees: Hozun and Majnun. Transcult Psychiatry 48 (4): 392–415. doi: 10.1177/1363461511409283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Rosenblatt S, Balmer D, Boyer DL (2017) Lost in Translation, Found in Exploration: Understanding Why Interpreters Might Alter Communication. Crit Care Med 45 (11): 1962–1963. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002668
  64. Rubin SS (2014) Loss and mourning in the Jewish tradition. Omega (Westport) 70 (1): 79–98. doi: 10.2190/OM.70.1.h
  65. Sabin JE, Daniels N (2017) Seeking Legitimacy for DSM-5: The Bereavement Exception as an Example of Failed Process. AMA J Ethics 19 (2): 192–198. doi: 10.1001/journalofethics.2017.19.2.pfor2–1702
  66. Salisbury L, Shail A (2010) Neurology and modernity: a cultural history of nervous systems, 1800–1950. Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  67. Sanggaran JP, Zion D (2016) Is Australia engaged in torturing asylum seekers? A cautionary tale for Europe. J Med Ethics 42 (7): 420–423. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2015–103326
  68. Savic M, Chur-Hansen A, Mahmood MA, Moore VM (2016) ‹We don’t have to go and see a special person to solve this problem›: Trauma, mental health beliefs and processes for addressing ‹mental health issues› among Sudanese refugees in Australia. Int J Soc Psychiatry 62 (1): 76–83. doi: 10.1177/ 0020764015595664Google Scholar
  69. Schnyder U, Muller J, Morina N, Schick M, Bryant RA, Nickerson A (2015) A Comparison of DSM-5 and DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Traumatized Refugees. J Trauma Stress 28 (4): 267–274. doi: 10.1002/jts.22023CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Schock K, Rosner R, Knaevelsrud C (2015) Impact of asylum interviews on the mental health of traumatized asylum seekers. Eur J Psychotraumatol 6: 26286. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v6.26286
  71. Schwei RJ, Schroeder M, Ejebe I, Lor M, Park L, Xiong P, Jacobs EA (2017) Limited English Proficient Patients’ Perceptions of when Interpreters are Needed and how the Decision to Utilize Interpreters is Made. Health Commun: 1–6. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2017.1372047
  72. Shapeton A, O’Donoghue M, VanderWielen B, Barnett SR (2017) Anesthesia Lost in Translation: Perspective and Comprehension. J Educ Perioper Med 19 (1): E505Google Scholar
  73. Silbermann M, Daher M, Kebudi R, Nimri O, Al-Jadiry M, Baider L (2016) Middle Eastern Conflicts: Implications for Refugee Health in the European Union and Middle Eastern Host Countries. J Glob Oncol 2 (6): 422–430. doi: 10.1200/JGO.2016.005173
  74. Simmelink J, Lightfoot E, Dube A, Blevins J, Lum T (2013) Understanding the health beliefs and practices of East African refugees. Am J Health Behav 37 (2): 155–161. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.37.2.2
  75. Sleptsova M, Weber H, Schopf AC, Nubling M, Morina N, Hofer G, Langewitz W (2017) Using interpreters in medical consultations: What is said and what is translated-A descriptive analysis using RIAS. Patient Educ Couns 100 (9): 1667–1671. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2017.03.023CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Soleymani S, Bahramsoltani R, Rahimi R, Abdollahi M (2017) Clinical risks of St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) co-administration. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 13 (10): 1047–1062. doi: 10.1080/17425255.2017.1378342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Storm T, Engberg M (2013) The impact of immigration detention on the mental health of torture survivors is poorly documented--a systematic review. Dan Med J 60 (11): A4728Google Scholar
  78. Sturman N, Farley R, Claudio F, Avila P (2017) Improving the effectiveness of interpreted consultations: Australian interpreter, general practitioner and patient perspectives. Health Soc Care Community. doi: 10.1111/hsc.12504
  79. Suswardany DL, Sibbritt DW, Supardi S, Pardosi JF, Chang S, Adams J (2017) A cross-sectional analysis of traditional medicine use for malaria alongside free antimalarial drugs treatment amongst adults in high-risk malaria endemic provinces of Indonesia. PLoS One 12 (3): e0173522. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173522
  80. Tol WA, Purgato M, Bass JK, Galappatti A, Eaton W (2015) Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: a public mental health perspective. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 24 (6): 484–494. doi: 10.1017/S2045796015000827CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Trimble MR (1981) Post-traumatic neurosis: from railway spine to the whiplash. A Wiley medical publication. Wiley, Chichester West Sussex ; New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Ucpinar H, Baykal T (2006) An important step for prevention of torture. The Istanbul protocol and challenges. Torture 16 (3): 252–267Google Scholar
  83. Wenzel T (2007) Torture. Curr Opin Psychiatry 20 (5): 491–496. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e3282c3a5c1
  84. Wenzel T, Frewer A, Mirzaei S (2015a) The DSM 5 and the Istanbul Protocol: Diagnosis of psychological sequels of torture. Torture 25 (1): 51–61Google Scholar
  85. Wenzel T, Griengl H, Stompe T, Mirzaei S, Kieffer W (2000) Psychological disorders in survivors of torture: exhaustion, impairment and depression. Psychopathology 33 (6): 292–296. doi: 10.1159/ 000029160Google Scholar
  86. Wenzel T, Kienzler H, Wollmann A (2015b) Facing Violence - A Global Challenge. Psychiatr Clin North Am 38 (3): 529–542. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2015.05.008CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Wenzel T, Mirzaei S, Nowak M (2016) Assessment of sequelae of torture for refugees in host countries. Lancet 387 (10020): 746. doi: 10.1016/S0140–6736 (16)00324-X
  88. Wenzel T, Rushiti F, Aghani F, Diaconu G, Maxhuni B, Zitterl W (2009) Suicidal ideation, post-traumatic stress and suicide statistics in Kosovo. An analysis five years after the war. Suicidal ideation in Kosovo. Torture 19 (3): 238–247Google Scholar
  89. Wenzel T, Völkl-, Kernstock S, Wittek TU., Baron D (2018) Identifying needs, vulnerabilities, and resources in refugee persons and groups In: Wenzel T, Droszdek B (Ed) An Uncertain Safety: Integrative Health Care for the 21st Century Refugees. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  90. Woodhead M (2016) Australian doctor challenges government over child detention «torture». BMJ 352: i550. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i550
  91. Zhao P, Liu B, Wang C, Acute Liver Failure Study T (2017) Hepatotoxicity evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines using a computational molecular model. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 55 (9): 996–1000. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1333123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medizinische Universität WienUniversitätsklinik für Psychiatrie und ­PsychotherapieWienÖsterreich
  2. 2.Institut für Ethik und Recht in der MedizinWienÖsterreich
  3. 3.WienÖsterreich
  4. 4.WienÖsterreich

Personalised recommendations