Impurities and Excitons

  • Mildred Dresselhaus
  • Gene Dresselhaus
  • Stephen B. CroninEmail author
  • Antonio Gomes Souza Filho
Part of the Graduate Texts in Physics book series (GTP)


Selected impurities are frequently introduced into semiconductors to make them n–type or p–type. The introduction of impurities into a crystal lattice not only shifts the Fermi level, but also results in a perturbation to the periodic potential, giving rise to bound impurity levels which often occur in the band gap of the semiconductor.

Supplementary material

Suggested Readings

  1. O. Gunnarsson, Alkali-doped fullerides. Narrow-band solids with unusual properties, in Alkali-doped Fullerides, vol. XVII (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004), p. 282Google Scholar
  2. Yu and Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors (Springer, Berlin, 1996). Sects. 6.3 and 6.6Google Scholar
  3. Bassani and Pastori–Parravicini, Electronic States and Optical Transitions in Solids: Chaps. 6 and 7 (1975)Google Scholar


  1. F. Plentz, H.B. Ribeiro, A. Jorio, M.S. Strano, M.A. Pimenta, Direct experimental evidence of exciton-phonon bound states in carbon nanotubes. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005)Google Scholar
  2. G. Dukovic, F. Wang, D.H. Song, M.Y. Sfeir, T.F. Heinz, L.E. Brus, Structural dependence of excitonic optical transitions and band-gap energies in carbon nanotubes. Nano Lett. 5, 2314–2318 (2005)Google Scholar
  3. K.F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, T.F. Heinz, Atomically thin \(\text{MoS}_{2}\): a new direct-gap semiconductor. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010)Google Scholar
  4. J.S. Ross, S.F. Wu, H.Y. Yu, N.J. Ghimire, A.M. Jones, G. Aivazian, J.Q. Yan, D.G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, X.D. Xu, Electrical control of neutral and charged excitons in a monolayer semiconductor. Nat. Commun. 4, 1474 (2013)Google Scholar
  5. P. Rivera, J.R. Schaibley, A.M. Jones, J.S. Ross, S.F. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N.J. Ghimire, J.Q. Yan, D.G. Mandrus, W. Yao, X.D. Xu, Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe\(_{2}\)-WSe\(_{2}\) heterostructures. Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015)Google Scholar
  6. T. Liang, W.G. Sawyer, S.S. Perry, S.B. Sinnott, S.R. Phillpot, First-principles determination of static potential energy surfaces for atomic friction in MoS\(_{2}\) and MoO\(_{3}\). Phys. Rev. B 77, 104105 (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, DE 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mildred Dresselhaus
    • 1
  • Gene Dresselhaus
    • 2
  • Stephen B. Cronin
    • 3
    Email author
  • Antonio Gomes Souza Filho
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Department of PhysicsMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Francis Bitter Magnet LaboratoryMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.University Park CampusUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Departamento de FísicaUniversidade Federal do CearáFortalezaBrazil

Personalised recommendations