Advertisement

Paozhi aus westlicher Sicht

  • R. Bauer
  • U. Wallauer
  • U. Gasser
  • W. Zhong

Zusammenfassung

Das Kapitel befasst sich mit der Anwendung von Paozhi in westlichen Ländern und vermittelt in verschiedenen Bereichen wertvolle Einblicke, die den Umgang mit und die Bereitstellung von Paozhi-Produkten erleichtern sollen. So gibt Prof. Rudolf Bauer in seinem Beitrag einen Überblick über den gegenwärtigen wissenschaftlichen Stand von pharmakognostischen Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von Paozhi-Methoden auf die Inhaltsstoffe von chinesischen Arzneidrogen. Die Apothekerin und TCM-Ärztin Frau Dr. Ulrike Wallauer fasst wichtige Aspekte für den mit chinesischen Arzneimitteln befassten Apotheker zusammen. Dr. Uwe Gasser gibt Hinweise zur Durchführung von Paozhi-Verfahren in der Apotheke aus der Sicht eines Sachverständigen für das Arzneimittelgesetz (AMG), und Dr. Zhong Wenjun vermittelt Hintergründe zum Handel von chinesischen Arzneimitteln generell, zum Import und Vertrieb von Paozhi-Produkten sowie zur Lagerung.

Literatur

Literatur zu Abschn. 5.1

  1. Borcsa B, Csupor D, Forgo P, Widowitz U, Bauer R, Hohmann J (2011) Aconitum lipo-alkaloids − semi-synthetic products of the traditional medicine. Nat Prod Commun 6(4): 527–536Google Scholar
  2. Cai H, Cao G, Cai B (2013) Rapid simultaneous identification and determination of the multiple compounds in crude Fructus Corni and its processed products by HPLC-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring mode. Pharm Biol 51(3): 273–278CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen JK, Chen TT (2004) FuZi. Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology. Art of Medicine Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  4. Choi YH, Sohn YM, Kim CY, Oh KY, Kim J (2004) Analysis of strychnine from detoxified strychnos nux-vomica seeds using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. J Ethnopharmacol 93: 109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Csupor D, Wenzig EM, Zupkó I, Wölkart K, Hohmann J, Bauer R (2009) Qualitative and quantitative analysis of aconitine-type and lipo-alkaloids of Aconitum carmichaelii roots. J Chromatogr A 1216(11): 2079–2086CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Csupor D, Borcsa B, Heydel B, Hohmann J, Zupkó I, Ma Y, Widowitz U, Bauer R (2011) Comparison of a specific HPLC determination of toxic aconite alkaloids in processed Radix aconiti with a titration method of total alkaloids. Pharm Biol 49(10): 1097–1101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ding X, Cai BC (2006) The comparative study on the contents of active constituents in Cornus officinalis before and after being processed. Chin Tradit Pat Med 28:1597–1600Google Scholar
  8. Dou ZY, Sun W, Tian LL, Zhang M (2007) Comparing the contents of three active components in raw materials and different processed products of Rhizoma Corydalis by HPLC method. J Chin Mater Med 30:399–401Google Scholar
  9. Fan DL, Liao QW, Yan D, Xiao XH, Ma XJ (2006) Study on alkaloid of differently processed Coptis chinensis. Pharm J Chin PLA 22: 276–279Google Scholar
  10. Feng HP, Yang ZL, Hu YZ (2007) Chromatographic studies on fingerprints of Cortex Magnoliae officinalis and their processed products by HPLC-DAD-MS. Chin Tradit Pat Med 29: 84–88Google Scholar
  11. Guojia yaodian weiyuanhui 国家药典委员会 (2015) Pharmakopöe der VR China, Bd. 1 (Zhonghua renmin gongheguo yaodian yibu 中华人民共和国药典一部). Chinesischer Verlag für Medizin, Pharmakologie, Wissenschaft und Technik (Zhongguo yiyao keji chubanshe 中国医药科技出版社), BeijingGoogle Scholar
  12. Jiang Y, Chen H, Wang L, Zou J, Zheng X, Liu Z (2016) Quality Evaluation of Polar and Active Components in Crude and Processed Fructus Corni by Quantitative Analysis of Multicomponents with Single Marker. J Anal Meth Chem 2016: 6496840.Google Scholar
  13. Jiang ZH, Xie Y, Zhou H, Wang JR, Liu ZQ, Wong YF, Cai X, Xu HX, Liu L (2005) Quantification of aconitum alkaloids in aconite roots by a modified RP-HPLC method. Phytochem Anal 16: 415–421Google Scholar
  14. Jiang Z, Wang Y, Zheng Y, Yang J, Zhang L (2016) Ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis of licorice based on the simultaneous determination of saponins and flavonoids. J Sep Sci 39(15): 2928–2940CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kuwajima H, Taneda Y, Chen WZ, Kawanishi T, Hori K, Taniyama T, Kobayashi M, Ren J, Kitagawa I (1999) Variation of chemical constituents in processed licorice roots: quantitative determination of saponin and flavonoid constituents in bark removed and roasted licorice roots (in Japanese). Yakugaku Zasshi 119(12): 945–955CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Klug T (2011) Traditionelle chinesische Vorbehandlungsverfahren bei Arzneidrogen und ihre Überprüfung mit westlichen Untersuchungsmethoden, Diplomarbeit an der Karl-Franzens-Universität GrazGoogle Scholar
  17. Liang ZT, Chen HB, Yu ZL, Zhao ZZ (2010) Comparative analysis of raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori by high performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and mass spectrometry. Chin Med. 5: 29–36Google Scholar
  18. Liou SS, Liu IM, Lai MC, Cheng JT (2005) Comparison of the antinozizeptive action of crude Fuzei, the root of Aconitum, and its processed products. J Ethnopharmacol 99(3): 379–383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu ZL, Song ZQ, Zhang L, Li SL (2005) Influence of process methods on contents of chemical component Radix Polygoni Multiflori. Chin J Chin Mater Med 30: 336–340Google Scholar
  20. Lu GH, Dong ZQ, Wang Q, Qian GS, Huang WH, Jiang ZH, Leung KSY, Zhao ZZ (2010) Toxicity assessment of nine types of decoction pieces from the daughter root of Aconitum carmichaeli (Fuzi) based on chemical analysis of diester diterpenoid alkaloids. Planta Med 76: 825–830Google Scholar
  21. Nikles S, Heuberger H, Hilsdorf E, Schmücker R, Seidenberger R, Bauer R (2015) Influence of Processing on the Content of Toxic Carboxyatractyloside and Atractyloside and the Microbiological Status of Xanthium sibiricum Fruits (Cang’erzi). Planta Med 81(12–13): 1213–1220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ren SL, Zhang NN, Liu ZL, Liu JL, Liu J (2007) Study on chemical changes of whole constituents in the preparing process of Kansui root. J Chin Mater Med 30: 639–640Google Scholar
  23. Ren SL, Zhang NN, Liu ZL, Liu JL, Liu J (2007) Study on chemical changes of whole constituents in the preparing process of Kansui root. J Chin Mater Med 30: 639–640Google Scholar
  24. Shim SH, Kim JS, Kang SS (2003) Norditerpenoid alkaloids from the processed tubers of Aconitum carmichaeli. Chem Pharm Bull 51: 999–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shim SH, Lee SY, Kim JS, Son KH, Kang SS (2005) Norditerpenoid alkaloids and other components from the processed tubers of Aconitum carmichaeli. Arch Pharm Res 28: 1239–1243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Sionneau P (1995) An Introduction to the Use of Processed Chinese Medicinals. Boulder, CO: Blue Poppy PressGoogle Scholar
  27. Singhuber J, Zhu M, Prinz S, Kopp B (2009) Aconitum in traditional Chinese medicine: a valuable drug or an unpredictable risk? J Ethnopharmacol 126(1): 18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sun H, Ni B, Zhang A, Wang M, Dong H, Wang X (2012). Metabolomics study on Fuzi and its processed products using ultra-performance liquid-chromatography/electrospray-ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry coupled with pattern recognition analysis. Analyst 137(1): 170–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang B, Ji J, Zhao S, Dong J, Tan P, Na S, Liu Y (2016) An Efficient High-performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method to Elaborate the Changes of Components Between the Raw and Processed Radix Aconitum kusnezoffii. Pharmacogn Mag 12(45):4–8.Google Scholar
  30. Wang J, Chen D, Zhao X (1995) Analytical study on drug-processing of the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. by HPLC (in Chinese). Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 20(9): 535–6, 575Google Scholar
  31. Wang M, Zhang M, Tang Q, Li X (2011) Influence of honey-roasting on the main pharmacological activities and the water-soluble active glycosides of licorice. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 9(2):189–196Google Scholar
  32. Wang P, Wang Q, Yang B, Zhao S, Kuang H (2015) The Progress of Metabolomics Study in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research. Am J Chin Med 43(7):1281–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang Q, Liu RX, Guo HZ, Zhu ZN, Bi KS, Guo DA (2006) Study on influence of processing methods on chemical constituents in Radix Paeoniae Alba. Chin J Chin Mater Med 31:1418–1421Google Scholar
  34. Wang Xiaotao 王孝涛 et al. (1998) Geschichtliche Sammlung zu Aufbereitungsmethoden chinesischer Arzneimittel − Altertum (Lidai zhongyao paozhifa huidian, gudai 历代中药炮制法汇典, 古代). Verlag für Wissenschaft und Technik Jiangxi (Jiangxi kexue jishu chubanshe 江西科学技术出版社), NanchangGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang X, Wang H, Zhang A, Lu X, Sun H, Dong H, Wang P (2012) Metabolomics study on the toxicity of aconite root and its processed products using ultraperformance liquid-chromatography/electrospray-ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry coupled with pattern recognition approach and ingenuity pathways analysis. J Proteome Res 11(2): 1284–1301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wu W, Liang ZT, Zhao ZZ, Cai Z (2007) Direct analysis of alkaloid profiling in plant tissue by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom 42: 58–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Wu H, Waldbauer K, Tang L, Xie L, McKinnon R, Zehl M, Yang H, Xu H, Kopp B (2014) Influence of vinegar and wine processing on the alkaloid content and composition of the traditional Chinese medicine Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo). Molecules 19(8): 11487–11504CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Xu LY, Weng DH, Li X, Wang S, Luo K (2007) The influences of processing methods on the contents of magnolol and honokiol. J Chin Mater Med 30: 641–642Google Scholar
  39. Yuan ZM, Wang J, Lu J, Jia TZ (2006). Comparing analysis of components in volatile oils of nutmeg and prepared nutmeg by GC-MS. Chin J Chin Mater Med 31: 737–739Google Scholar
  40. Zhang XZ, Cai GH (1984) Processing of Chinese Materia Medica. Taichung; China Medical CollegeGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhao Z, Liang Z, Chan K, Lu G, Lee EL, Chen H, Li L (2010) A unique issue in the standardization of Chinese materia medica: processing. Planta Med 76(17):1975–86CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Literatur zu Abschn. 5.2

  1. Apothekenbetriebsordnung, aktuelle FassungGoogle Scholar
  2. Arbeitsgemeinschaft deutscher TCM-Apotheken: www.tcm-apo.de
  3. Arzneimittelgesetz, aktuelle FassungGoogle Scholar
  4. Arzneimittelinformationsstelle der Bayerischen Landesapothekerkammer in Würzburg: Infobroschüre der Bayerischen Landesapothekerkammer − Übersicht über stark wirksame TCM-Drogen sowie deren mögliche Risiken bei der Anwendung, September 2007Google Scholar
  5. Bayerische Landesapothekerkammer, Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Umwelt und Gesundheit (2010) Drogen der Traditionellen Chinesischen Medizin (TCM), Kampo-Kräuter und daraus hergestellte GranulateGoogle Scholar
  6. Bundesapothekerkammer: Leitlinie der Bundesapothekerkammer zur Qualitätssicherung − Prüfung und Lagerung der Ausgangsstoffe. Stand der Revision: 21.04.2009Google Scholar
  7. Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte: Bekanntmachung über die Sicherheitsanforderungen zur Minderung des Risikos der Übertragung von tierischen transmissiblen spongiformen Enzephalopathien an Arzneimittel, die unter Verwendung von Materialien bestimmter Tierspezies hergestellt wurden, 16. August 2005 (Bundesanzeiger 08.09.2005, Nr. I 70, S. I 3490 ff.)Google Scholar
  8. Flechtner A-R (2012) Überlegungen zur Durchführung von Paozhi-Verfahren in der Apotheke. Chinesische Medizin 27:151−4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gao WY, Jia W, Duan HQ, Huang L, Xiao X, Xiao P, Paek KY (2002) Good agriculture practice (GAP) and sustainable resource utilization of Chinese materia medica. J. Plant Biotechnology 4(3): 103−7Google Scholar
  10. Porkert M (1978) Klinische Chinesische Pharmakologie. Ewald Fischer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  11. Produkthaftungsgesetz, aktuelle FassungGoogle Scholar
  12. Stöger E (2016) Arzneibuch der chinesischen Medizin (Loseblattwerk). Deutscher Apothekerverlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  13. Verordnung über radioaktive oder mit ionisiererden Strahlen behandelte Arzneimittel, aktuelle FassungGoogle Scholar

Literatur zu Abschn. 5.3

  1. Blaszczyk T (2000) Rösten oder Kochen mit Honig und Ingwer. Pharmazeutische Zeitung online, Ausgabe 12/2000, Abruf vom 12.08.2016: http://www.pharmazeutische-zeitung.de/index.php?id=pharm6_12_2000
  2. EU Pharmaceutical Informations, Abruf vom 12.08.2016: http://ec.europa.eu/health/documents/eudralex/vol-4/index_en.htm
  3. Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People’s Republic of China (2010) Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, English edition, vol. 1. China Medical Science Press, Appendix II D: 25–27Google Scholar
  4. Pharmeuropa Vol. 22.2, April 2010, S 176−178Google Scholar
  5. Sionneau P, Flaws B (2004) Pao Zhi: An Introduction to the Use of Processed Chinese Medicinals, 4th ed. Blue Poppy Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  6. Stöger E (2016) Arzneibuch der chinesischen Medizin (Loseblattwerk). Deutscher Apothekerverlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar

Literatur zu Abschn. 5.4

  1. China Chamber of Commerce for Import & Export of Medicines & Health Products (2014) http://www.cccmhpie.org.cn/default.aspx
  2. Escrivá L, Font G, Manyes L (2015) In vivo toxicity studies of fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade: A review. Food & Chem Toxicol 78: 185–206. 22pCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Europäische Union (2006) Verordnung (EU) Nr. 1881/2006 zur Festsetzung der Höchstgehalte für bestimmte Kontaminanten in Lebensmitteln hinsichtlich AflatoxinenGoogle Scholar
  4. Europäische Union (2010) Verordnung (EU) Nr. 165/2010 der Kommission vom 26. Februar 2010 zur Änderung der Verordnung (EG)
  5. Han Q (2013) Variability causes and countermeasures of TCM processed products. Clin J Chin Med (5) 11Google Scholar
  6. HerbaSinica (2016) Info zu Cinnamomi ramulus. HerbaSinica Kurier 53Google Scholar
  7. Huang Luqi 黄璐琦, Wang Nuo 王诺, Yang Guang 杨光 (2015) Resource of Chinese Medicinal Herbs in China and their Development Report (Zhongguo zhongyao ziyuan fazhan baogao 中国中药资源发展报告). Economic Science Press (Jingji kexue chubanshe 经济科学出版社), BeijingGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee M, Lee B, Lee S (2013) Reduction of Hepatitis A Virus on FRhK-4 Cells Treated with Korean Red Ginseng Extract and Ginsenosides. J Food Sci 78 Issue 9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Liang L (2016) A Study of Pharmacological Effects and Clinic Use of Cinnamomi Ramulus. Guide of China Medicine 14, 25Google Scholar
  10. National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China (2016) http://www.stats.gov.cn
  11. Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People’s Republic of China (1995) Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Edition 1995, Volume 1. China Medical Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  12. Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People’s Republic of China (2000) Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Edition 2000, Volume 1. China Medical Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  13. Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People’s Republic of China (2010) Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, vol 1. China Medical Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  14. Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People’s Republic of China (2015) Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Edition 2015, Volume 1. China Medical Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  15. Selvariaj J, Wang Y, Zhou L, Zhao Y, Xing F, Dai X, Liu Y (2015) Recent mycotoxin survey data and advanced mycotoxin detection techniques reported from China: a review. Food Additives Contamin Part A 32, 4: 440–452Google Scholar
  16. Smith M, Madec S, Coton E, Hymery N (2016) Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects. Toxins 8: 94CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Tiwari S, Shukla A, Tiwari V, Tiwari D (2016) Mycotoxicosis in Livestock: An Overview. Pharma Science Monitor 7(1), 85–89Google Scholar
  18. Wang Q (2015) Discussion about Storage of Chinese Medicinal Herbs after Processing. J Clin Med 2 18Google Scholar
  19. Wang W, Rayburn ER, Zhao Y, Wang H, Zhang R (2009) Novel ginsenosides 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD as experimental therapy for pancreatic cancer: anticancer activity and mechanisms of action. Cancer Lett 278 Issue 2: 241–248CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Wu R, Zhang Z, Du P, Liang J, Wang J, Shi L (2016) Comparative Study on Impact of Oil-releasing on the Content of Aesculetin in Semen Euphorbiae. ACTA Chin Med 31, Ser 223Google Scholar
  21. Xing W (2013) Investigation of procedures for disinfection and disinfestation of Chinese herbs. Guide Chin Med 11, 25Google Scholar
  22. Xu T, Jin Z, Yuan Y, Wei H, Xu X, He S, Chen S, Hou W, Guo Q, Hua B (2016) Ginsenoside Rg3 Serves as an Adjuvant Chemotherapeutic Agent and VEGF Inhibitor in the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Evidence-based Complement Alternat Med (eCAM) 10/5/2016: 1–14Google Scholar
  23. Zhang K, Wong J, Krynitsky A, Trucksess M (2016) Perspective on advancing FDA regulatory monitoring for mycotoxins in foods using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (review). J AOAC Int 99, 4: 890–894CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhao J (2001) Relationship between the chemical ingredients and storage stability of prepared slices of Chinese herbs. Zhejiang Clin Med 3, 8: 624Google Scholar
  25. Zhong W (2015a) Patent of the People’s Republic of China, Z L 2014 1 0207169. 4Google Scholar
  26. Zhong W (2015b) How low-grade Chinese herbs can be detrimental to Chinese Medicine. Chin Med 30: 110–115Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Inst. für PharmakognosieKarl-Franzen-Universität GrazGrazÖsterreich
  2. 2.MünchenDeutschland
  3. 3.Dronania pharmaceuticalsBad WörishofenDeutschland
  4. 4.HerbaSinica Hilsdorf GmbHRednitzhembachDeutschland

Personalised recommendations