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Hyperthyroidism

  • Betty Panayota Messazos
  • Radu Mihai
  • Fiona Jane RyanEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism in children. Hyperthyroidism has multiple and often dramatic clinical manifestations because thyroid hormones control the basal metabolic rate, affect cardiovascular function by increasing the sensitivity of beta-receptors to catecholamines and profoundly influence growth, sexual maturation, neurological, and cognitive development. The chapter focuses on Graves’ disease, which is by far the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children. Treatment of Graves’ disease with antithyroid drugs using two common strategies, block and replacement therapy and dose titration therapy, is reviewed. Also reviewed is the treatment of hyperthyroidism by radioactive iodine ablation of thyroid tissue and by thyroidectomy. Aspects of surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism including the preoperative preparation, intraoperative support, conduct of the operation and clinical outcomes are considered.

Keywords

Hyperthyroidism in children Pediatric hyperthyroidism Graves disease Thyroid gland Antithyroid drugs Thyroidectomy 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Betty Panayota Messazos
    • 1
  • Radu Mihai
    • 2
  • Fiona Jane Ryan
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Oxford Children’s HospitalOxford University Hospitals NHS TrustHeadington, OxfordUK
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryJohn Radcliffe HospitalOxfordUK
  3. 3.Department of Paediatric EndocrinologyOxford Children’s HospitalHeadington, OxfordUK

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