Recycled Aggregates

  • Jianzhuang XiaoEmail author
Part of the Springer Tracts in Civil Engineering book series (SPRTRCIENG)


This chapter will mainly introduce the crushing and sieving techniques used around the world, the properties of recycled fine aggregate (RFA) and recycled coarse aggregate (RCA), the adhered old mortar and its influence on the properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) and methods of pre-treating and enhancing techniques. This is fundamental to understand the differences between natural aggregate concrete (NAC) and RAC, and it is the basic premise for further studying the  behavior of the RAC materials and structures.


  1. 1.
    Xiao J, Sun Z, Li J, et al. Studies on crushing and regenerating technology of waste concrete. Archit Technol. 2005;36(2):141–4.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li B, Huang B, Zhang D. Research on the application of removable crusher in strip mine. Coal Technol. 2003;22(10):20–1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jian G, Sun J. Characteristics of the carbonation resistance of recycled fine aggregate concrete. Constr Build Mater. 2013;49(1):814–20.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li Q, Li Y, Jiang Y. Investigation on quality standards and testing method of recycled fine aggregate. J Qingdao Technol Univ. 2005;26(6):6–9.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hansen TC, Narud H. Strength of recycled concrete made from crushed concrete coarse aggregate. Concr Int. 1983;5:79–83.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zega CJ, Di Maio AA. Use of recycled fine aggregate in concretes with durable requirements. Waste Manag. 2011;31(11):2240–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hirotaka K. The state of using by-products in concrete in Japan and outline of Jis/Tr on “recycled concrete using recycled aggregate”. Public Works Research Institute, Japan.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hansen TC. Recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete. Second state of art report, development from 1945–1985. RILEM Technical Committee 37 DRC. Mater Struct. 1986;19(5):201–46.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lin YH, Tyan YY, Chang TP, et al. An assessment of optimal mixture for concrete made with recycled concrete aggregates. Cem Concr Res. 2004;34(8):1373–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Silva RV, Brito JD, Dhir RK. Properties and composition of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste suitable for concrete production. Constr Build Mater. 2014;65(13):201–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ulloa VA, Garc’Ia-Taengua E, Pelufo MJ, et al. New views on effect of recycled aggregates on concrete compressive strength. ACI Mater J. 2013;110(6):1–10.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li JB, Xiao JZ, Sun ZP. The characteristics of recycled coarse aggregates and its effect on performance of recycled concrete. J Building Mater. 2005;17(5):390–5.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marta SJ, Pilar AG. Influence of attached mortar content on the properties of recycled concrete aggregate. In: Proceedings of international conference on sustainable waste management and recycling: construction and demolition waste; 2004.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Poon CS, Chan D. Feasible use of recycled concrete aggregates and crushed clay brick as unbound road sub-base. Constr Build Mater. 2006;20(8):578–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jian Wang, Yi Li. Research on treatment and regeneration of building refuses. Environ Eng. 2003;21(6):49–52.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Peng HS, Chen HJ, Yen T. Strength and workability of recycled aggregate concrete. In: The international conference on composites in constructions (CCC2003). Italy; 2003.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hendriks CF, Pieterson HS. Sustainable raw materials-construction and demolition waste. RILEM report 22, RILEM publication series, F-94235 Cachan Cedex, France; 1998.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yoda K, Shintani A. Building application of recycled aggregate concrete for upper-ground structural elements. Constr Build Mater. 2014;67:379–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    British Standards Institution. BS6543-Guide to the use of industrial by-products and waste materials in building and civil engineering. London; 1985.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Take Force of the Standing Committee of Concrete of Spain. Draft of Spanish regulations for the use of recycled aggregate in the production of structural concrete.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    German Committee for reinforced concrete (DAFSTB)-code: concrete with recycled aggregates.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Csiro, Building, Construction and Engineering. Guide for specification of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for production. 1998.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vyncke J, Rousseau E. Recycling of construction and demolition waste in Belgium: actual situation and future evolution. Brussels: Belgian Building Research Institute.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marcio JE, Cassia S, Juercio T. Recycled aggregate standardization in Brazil.
  25. 25.
    GB/T 25177-2010. Recycled coarse aggregate for concrete.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Padmini AK, Ramamurthy K, Mathews MS. Influence of parent concrete on the properties of concrete. Constr Build Mater. 2009;23(2):829–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang Y, Qin H, Sun W. Preliminary study on the proportion design of recycled aggregate concrete. China Concr Cem Prod. 2002;1:7–9 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Xiao JZ, Li JB, Sun ZP, et al. Study on compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete. J Tongji Univ (Nat Sci). 2004;32(12):1558–61 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fathifazl G. Structural performance of steel reinforced recycled concrete members. PhD dissertation, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada; 2008.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shi C, Li Y, Zhang J, et al. Performance enhancement of recycled concrete aggregate—A review. J Clean Prod. 2015;112(1):466–72.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Corinaldesi V, Moriconi G. Influence of mineral additions on the performance of 100% recycled aggregate concrete. Constr Build Mater. 2009;23(8):2869–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kou SC, Poon CS. Long-term mechanical and durability properties of recycled aggregate concrete prepared with the incorporation of fly ash. Cement Concr Compos. 2013;37(2):12–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tam VWY, Gao XF, Tam CM. Microstructural analysis of recycled aggregate concrete produced from two-stage mixing approach. Cem Concr Res. 2005;35(6):1195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shayan A, Xu A. Performance and properties of structural concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate. ACI Mater J. 2003;100(5):371–80.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wang C, Xiao J, Zhang G, et al. Interfacial properties of modeled recycled aggregate concrete modified by carbonation. Constr Build Mater. 2016;105:307–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sun YD, Xiao JZ. Aggregate of recycled concrete. Concrete. 2004;6:33–6 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Xiao JZ, Wu L, Fan YH. Test on modification of recycled coarse aggregate by microwave heating. Concrete. 2012;31(7):55–7 (in Chinese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Civil EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations