Motivation durch Erwartung und Anreiz

Chapter
Part of the Springer-Lehrbuch book series (SLB)

Zusammenfassung

Das Anstreben von Zielzuständen, die mit Affekten verbunden sind, ist ein Kernstück der Motivation. Anreiztheorien der Motivation gehen von einer Zielgerichtetheit des Verhaltens aus. Die Verhaltenssteuerung ist vorwärts gerichtet und nicht reaktiv wie in triebtheoretischen Modellen. Es braucht keinen Trieb, der drückt („push“). Stattdessen zieht das Ziel („pull“). Außerdem wird davon ausgegangen, dass nicht Reiz-Reaktions-Verbindungen, sondern Erwartungen von Zusammenhängen (Kontingenzen) erlernt werden. Daraus ergibt sich ein einfaches kognitives Motivationsmodell: Motivation als Funktion von Erwartung und Wert. Nach dieser Theorie wird bei der Wahl zwischen mehreren Handlungsalternativen jene bevorzugt, bei der das Produkt von erzielbarem Wert (Anreiz) und Wahrscheinlichkeit, ihn zu erzielen (Erwartung), maximal ist. Es gibt wohl keine neuere Motivationstheorie, die nicht in ihren Grundzügen dem Modelltyp dieser Erwartungs-Wert-Theorien entspräche.

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für SportpsychologieTechnische Universität MünchenMünchenDeutschland
  2. 2.(1926-1988)Bochum, MünchenDeutschland

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