Basic numerical approaches for surface structure simulation

  • A. ShkrebtiiEmail author
  • M. Rohlfing
Part of the Condensed Matter book series (volume 45B)


In this chapter methods to calculate the microscopic forces that act on the nuclei are discussed.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT)OshawaCanada
  2. 2.Institut für FestkörpertheorieUniversität MünsterMünsterGermany

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