Advertisement

Prosoziales Verhalten – Wann und warum wir anderen helfen

Chapter
  • 11k Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Im Jahr 1997 wurde in Hamburg ein 17-jähriges Mädchen in der S-Bahn vergewaltigt. Das Opfer rief um Hilfe, aber keiner der anderen Fahrgäste griff ein oder rief die Polizei. Angesichts solcher Vorfälle sind wir entsetzt, nicht nur ob der Grausamkeit der Verbrechen an sich, sondern insbesondere deshalb, weil die Zeugen – obwohl sie gekonnt hätten – den Opfern nicht zu Hilfe kamen. Warum haben sie es nicht getan? Waren die Zeugen alle Egoisten, die sich nicht für ihre Umwelt interessierten? Wie sich gezeigt hat, ist dies nicht der Fall, sondern es sind insbesondere situative Faktoren bedeutsam dafür, ob Menschen helfen oder nicht (Abschn. 6.1). Unsere Bestürzung angesichts unterlassener Hilfeleistung spiegelt wider, dass wir grundsätzlich erwarten, dass Menschen anderen helfen, die ihrer Hilfe bedürfen. Weshalb? Liegt prosoziales Verhalten in der Natur des Menschen? Welche Motive für prosoziales Verhalten gibt es? Diesen Fragen ist Abschn. 6.2 gewidmet.

Literatur

  1. Adami, C., & Hintze, A. (2013). Evolutionary instability of zero-determinant strategies demonstrates that winning is not everything. Nature Communications, 4, 2193.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353–359.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, V. L. (1993). Gender differences in altruism among Holocaust rescuers. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8, 43–58.Google Scholar
  4. Ariely, D., Bracha, A., & Meier, S. (2009). Doing good or doing well? Image motivation and monetary incentives in behaving prosocially on JSTOR. The American Economic Review, 99, 544–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Axelrod, R. (2012). Launching „The Evolution of cooperation“. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 299, 21–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Axelrod, R., & Hamilton, W. D. (1981). The evolution of cooperation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 211, 1390–1396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (Hrsg.). (1992). The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Baron, J. (1997a). The illusion of morality as self-interest: A reason to cooperate in social dilemmas. Psychological Science, 8, 330–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baron, J. (1997b). The sweet smell of … helping: Effects of pleasant ambient fragrance on prosocial behavior in shopping malls. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 498–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baron, J., & Thomley, J. (1994). A whiff of reality: Positive affect as a potential mediator of the effects of pleasant fragrances on task performance and helping. Environment and Behavior, 26, 766–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartlett, M. Y., & DeSteno, D. (2006). Gratitude and prosocial behavior: Helping when it costs you. Psychological Science, 17, 319–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Batson, C. D. (1997). Self-other merging and the empathy-altruism hypothesis: Reply to Neuberg et al. (1997). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 517–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Batson, C. D. (1998). Altruism and prosocial behavior. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Hrsg.), The handbook of social psychology (4. Aufl., Bd. 2, S. 282–316). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  14. Batson, C. D., & Oleson, K. C. (1991). Current status of the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In M. S. Clark (Hrsg.), Review of Personality and Social Psychology (Bd. 12, S. 62–85). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Batson, C. D., & Weeks, J. L. (1996). Mood effects of unsuccessful helping: Another test of the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 148–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Batson, C. D., Cochran, P. J., Biederman, M. F., Blosser, J. L., Ryan, M. J., & Vogt, B. (1978a). Failure to help when in a hurry: Callousness or conflict? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4, 97–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Batson, C. D., Coke, J. S., Jasnoski, M. L., & Hanson, M. (1978b). Buying kindness: Effect of an extrinsic incentive for helping on perceived altruism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4, 86–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Batson, C. D., Duncan, B. D., Ackerman, P., Buckley, T., & Birch, K. (1981). Is empathic emotion a source of altruistic motivation? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 290–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Batson, C. D., O’Quin, K., Fultz, J., Vanderplas, M., & Isen, A. M. (1983). Influence of self-reported distress and empathy on egoistic versus altruistic motivation to help. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 706–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Batson, C. D., Bolen, M. H., Cross, J. A., & Neuringer-Benefiel, H. E. (1986). Where is the altruism in the altruistic personality? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 212–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Batson, C. D., Fultz, J., Schoenrade, P. A., & Paduano, A. (1987). Critical self-reflection and self-perceived altruism: When self-reward fails. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 594–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Batson, C. D., Dyck, J. L., Brandt, J. R., Batson, J. G., Powell, A. L., McMaster, M. R., et al. (1988). Five studies testing two new egoistic alternatives to the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 52–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Batson, C. D., Batson, J. G., Slingsby, J. K., Harrell, K. L., Peekna, H. M., & Todd, R. M. (1991). Empathic joy and the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 413–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Batson, C. D., Batson, J. G., Todd, R. M., Brummett, B. H., Shaw, L. L., & Aldeguer, C. M. R. (1995). Empathy and collective good: Caring for one of the others in a social dilemma. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 619–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Batson, C. D., Sager, K., Garst, E., Kang, M., Rubchinsky, K., & Dawson, K. (1997). Is empathy-induced helping due to self-other merging? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 495–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Baumeister, R. F. (1982). A self-presentational view of social phenomena. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Baumeister, R. F., Chesner, S. P., Senders, P. S., & Tice, D. M. (1988). Who’s in charge here? Group leaders do lend help in emergencies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14, 17–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Baumeister, R. F., Stillwell, A. M., & Heatherton, T. F. (1994). Guilt: An interpersonal approach. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 243–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bénabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2006). Incentives and prosocial behavior. The American Economic Review, 96, 1652–1678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Berkowitz, L. (1987). Mood, self-awareness, and willingness to help. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 721–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Berkowitz, L., & Daniels, L. R. (1964). Affecting the salience of the social responsibility norm: Effects of past help on the response to dependency relationships. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68, 275–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Betancourt, H. (1990). An attribution-empathy model of helping behavior: Behavioral intentions and judgments of help-giving. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 573–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bickman, L. (1972). Social influence and diffusion of responsibility in an emergency. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 8, 438–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bickman, L., & Rosenbaum, D. P. (1977). Crime reporting as a function of bystander encouragement, surveillance, and credibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 577–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bierhoff, H.-W. (1997). Prosoziales Verhalten. In W. Stroebe, M. Hewstone, & G. M. Stephenson (Hrsg.), Sozialpsychologie (3. Aufl., S. 395–420). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bierhoff, H.-W. (2002). Just world, social responsibility, and helping behavior. In M. Ross & D. T. Miller (Hrsg.), The justice motive in everyday life (S. 189–203). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bierhoff, H.-W. (2006). Empathie-Atruismus-Hypothese. In D. Frey & H.-W. Bierhoff (Hrsg.), Handbuch der Psychologie, Band „Handbuch der Sozialpsychologie und Kommunikationspsychologie“ (S. 150–157). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  38. Bierhoff, H.-W., Klein, R., & Kramp, P. (1991). Evidence for the altruistic personality from data on accident research. Journal of Personality, 59, 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Blair, C. A., Thompson, L. F., & Wuensch, K. L. (2005). Electronic helping behavior: The virtual presence of others makes a difference. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27, 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Boles, W. E., & Hayward, S. C. (1978). Effects of urban noise and sidewalk density upon pedestrian cooperation and tempo. Journal of Social Psychology, 104, 29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bontempo, R., Lobel, S., & Triandis, H. (1990). Compliance and value internalization in Brazil and the U.S.: Effects of allocentrism and anonymity. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 21, 200–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Boone, R. T., & Buck, R. (2003). Emotional expressivity and trustworthiness: The role of nonverbal behavior in the evolution of cooperation. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27, 163–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bornstein, G., & Rapoport, A. (1988). Intergroup competition for the provision of step-level public goods: Effects of preplay communication. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 125–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Bryan, J. H., & Test, M. A. (1967). Models and helping: Naturalistic studies in aiding behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 400–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Buck, R., & Ginsburg, B. (1991). Spontaneous communication and altruism: The communicative gene hypothesis. In M. S. Clark (Hrsg.), Prosocial behavior (S. 149–175). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  46. Burnstein, E., Crandall, C., & Kitayama, S. (1994). Some neo-Darwinian decision rules for altruism: Weighing cues for inclusive fitness as a function of the biological importance of the decision. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 773–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2000). Prosocial foundations of children’s academic achievement. Psychological Science, 11, 302–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Carlson, M., Charlin, V., & Miller, N. (1988). Positive mood and helping behavior: A test of six hypotheses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 211–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Carpenter, J. P., Matthews, P., & Ong’ong’a, O. (2004). Why punish? Social reciprocity and the enforcement of prosocial norms. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 14, 407–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Chekroun, P., & Brauer, M. (2002). The bystander effect and social control behavior: The effect of the presence of others on people’s reactions to norm violations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 853–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Chen, X. P. (1996). The group-based binding pledge as a solution to public goods problems. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 66, 192–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cialdini, R. B. (2001). Influence: Science and practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  53. Cialdini, R. B., & Kenrick, D. T. (1976). Altruism as hedonism: A social development perspective on the relationship of negative mood state and helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 907–914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cialdini, R. B., & Trost, M. R. (1998). Social influence: Social norms, conformity and compliance. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Hrsg.), The handbook of social psychology (Bd. 2, S. 151–192). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  55. Cialdini, R. B., Darby, B. L., & Vincent, J. E. (1973). Transgression and altruism: A case for hedonism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9, 502–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cialdini, R. B., Schaller, M., Houlihan, D., Arps, K., Fultz, J., & Beaman, A. L. (1987). Empathy-based helping: Is it selflessly or selfishly motivated? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 749–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Cialdini, R. B., Brown, S. L., Lewis, B. P., Luce, C., & Neuberg, S. L. (1997). Reinterpreting the empathy-altruism relationship: When one into one equals oneness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 481–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Clark, M. S., & Waddell, B. A. (1983). Effects of moods on thoughts about helping, attraction and information acquisition. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46, 31–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Clark, R. D., & Word, L. E. (1972). Why don’t bystanders help? Because of ambiguity? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 392–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Clark, R. D., & Word, L. E. (1974). Where is the apathetic bystander? Situational characteristics of the emergency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Coates, B., Pusser, H. E., & Goodman, I. (1976). The influence of „Sesame Street“ and „Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood“ on children’s social behavior in the preschool. Child Development, 47, 138–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Cosmides, L. (1989). The logic of social exchange: Has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition, 31, 187–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2005). Neurocognitive adaptations designed for social exchange. In D. M. Buss (Hrsg.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology (S. 584–627). Hoboken, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  64. Cramer, R. E., McMaster, M. R., Bartell, P. A., & Dragna, M. (1988). Subject competence and minimization of the bystander effect. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 1133–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Cunningham, M. R. (1979). Weather, mood, and helping behavior: Quasi experiments with the sunshine samaritan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1947–1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Cunningham, M. R., Steinberg, J., & Grev, R. (1980). Wanting to and having to help: Separate motivations for positive mood and guilt-induced helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 181–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. D’Orazio, F. (2015). Journey of an image: From a beach in Bodrum to twenty million screens across the world. (O. Goriunova & F. Vis, Hrsg.), The Iconic Image on Social Media: A Rapid Research Response to the Death of Aylan Kurdi. Abgerufen von http://visualsocialmedialab.org/projects/the-iconic-image-on-social-media.
  68. Dabbert, S., & Scheffer, K. (17. November 2017). Verstörender Vorfall im Rettenmaier-Audimax. Universität Hohenheim: Hohenheimer Online Kurier.Google Scholar
  69. Darley, J. M., & Batson, C. D. (1973). „From Jerusalem to Jericho“: A study of situational and dispositional variables in helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 100–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander interventions in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 377–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Darley, J. M., Teger, A. I., & Lewis, L. D. (1973). Do groups always inhibit individuals’ responses to potential emergencies? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26, 395–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Davis, M. H., Luce, C., & Kraus, S. J. (1994). The heritability of characteristics associated with dispositional empathy. Journal of Personality, 62, 369–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Dawes, R. M. (1980). Social dilemmas. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 169–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Dawes, R. M., McTavish, J., & Shaklee, H. (1977). Behavior, communication, and assumptions about other people’s behavior in a commons dilemma situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. De Cremer, D., & Bakker, M. (2003). Accountability and cooperation in social dilemmas: The influence of others’ reputational concerns. Current Psychology, 22, 155–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. De Groot, J. I. M., & Steg, L. (2009). Morality and prosocial behavior: The role of awareness, responsibility, and norms in the norm activation model. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149, 425–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. de Waal, F. B. M. (1997). Der gute Affe: Der Ursprung von Recht und Unrecht bei Menschen und anderen Tieren. München: Hanser.Google Scholar
  78. de Waal, F. B. M. (2008). Putting the altruism back into altruism: The evolution of empathy. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 279–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Deutsch, M., & Gerard, H. B. (1955). A study of normative and informational influence upon individual judgment. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 629–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Dovidio, J. F. (1984). Helping behavior and altruism: An empirical and conceptual overview. In L. Berkowitz (Hrsg.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Bd. 17, S. 361–427). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  81. Dovidio, J. F., Allen, J. L., & Schroeder, D. A. (1990). Specificity of empathy-induced helping: Evidence for altruistic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Dovidio, J. F., Piliavin, J. A., Gaertner, S. L., Schroeder, D. A., & Clark, R. D. (1991). The arousal: Cost-reward model and the process of intervention: A review of the evidence. In M. S. Clark (Hrsg.), Prosocial behavior (S. 86–118). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  83. Duval, S., Duval, V. H., & Neely, R. (1979). Self-focus, felt responsibility, and helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1769–1778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Eagly, A. H., & Crowley, M. (1986). Gender and helping behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 283–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Eisenberg, N. (1991). Meta-analytic contributions to the literature on prosocial behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 273–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1991). Prosocial behavior and empathy: A multimethod developmental perspective. In a review of the evidence. In M. S. Clark (Hrsg.), Prosocial behavior (S. 34–61). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  87. Eisenberg, N., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C., Shepard, S. A., Cumberland, A., & Carlo, G. (1999). Consistency and development of prosocial dispositions: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 70, 1360–1372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Eisenberg, N., Guthrie, I. K., Cumberland, A., Murphy, B. C., Shepard, S. A., Zhou, Q., et al. (2002). Prosocial development in early adulthood: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 993–1006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. El-Enany, N. (2016). Aylan Kurdi: The human refugee. Law and Critique, 27, 13–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Essock-Vitale, S. M., & McGuire, M. T. (1985). Women’s lives viewed from an evolutionary perspective: II. Patterns of helping. Ethology and Sociobiology, 6, 155–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Estrada-Hollenbeck, M., & Heatherton, T. F. (1998). Avoiding and alleviating guilt through prosocial behavior. In J. Bybee (Hrsg.), Guilt and children (S. 215–231). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Fischer, P., Greitemeyer, T., Pollozek, F., & Frey, D. (2006). The unresponsive bystander: Are bystanders more responsive in dangerous emergencies? European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 267–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Fiske, A. P. (1991). The cultural relativity of selfish individualism: Anthropological evidence that humans are inherently sociable. In M. S. Clark (Hrsg.), Review of personality and social psychology, Prosocial behavior (Bd. 12, S. 176–214). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  94. Fiske, A. P. (1992). The four elementary forms of sociality: Framework for a unified theory of social relations. Psychological Review, 99, 689–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Fiske, A. P. (2004). Relational models theory 2.0. In N. Haslam (Hrsg.), Relational models theory: A contemporary overview (S. 3–25). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  96. Forest, D., Clark, M. S., Mills, J., & Isen, A. M. (1979). Helping as a function of feeling state and nature of the helping behavior. Motivation and Emotion, 3, 161–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Forgas, J. P., & Bower, G. H. (1987). Mood effects on person-perception judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 53–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Forgas, J. P., Bower, G. H., & Krantz, S. E. (1984). The influence of mood on perceptions of social interactions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 497–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Forge, K. L., & Phemister, S. (1987). The effect of prosocial cartoons on preschool children. Child Study Journal, 17, 83–88.Google Scholar
  100. Friedrich, L. K., & Stein, A. H. (1975). Prosocial television and young children: The effects of verbal labeling and role playing on learning and behavior. Child Development, 46, 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (1977). The subtlety of white racism, arousal, and helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 691–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Gaschke, S. (11. August 1997). Kinder, Küche, Karriere? Nicht bei uns. Die Zeit.Google Scholar
  103. George, J. M., & Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: A conceptual analysis of the mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 310–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Gergen, K. J., Ellsworth, P. C., Maslach, C., & Seipel, M. (1975). Obligation, donor resources, and reactions to aid in three cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 390–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Gibbons, F. X. (1990). Self-attention and behavior: A review and theoretical update. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 249–303.Google Scholar
  106. Gibbons, F. X., & Wicklund, R. A. (1982). Self-focused attention and helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 462–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Gintis, H., Bowles, S., Boyd, R., & Fehr, E. (2003). Explaining altruistic behavior in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24, 153–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Gottlieb, J., & Carver, C. S. (1980). Anticipation of future interaction and the bystander effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16, 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Greenwald, A. G. (1975). Does the good samaritan parable increase helping? A comment on Darley and Batson’s no-effect conclusion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 578–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Greitemeyer, T., Rudolph, U., & Weiner, B. (2003). Whom would you rather help: An acquaintance not responsible for her plight or a responsible sibling? Journal of Social Psychology, 143, 331–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Greitemeyer, T., Fischer, P., Kastenmüller, A., & Frey, D. (2006). Civil courage and helping behavior: Differences and similarities. European Psychologist, 11, 90–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Grusec, J. E., Kuczynski, L., Rushton, J. P., & Simutis, Z. M. (1978). Modeling, direct instruction, and attributions: Effects on altruism. Developmental Psychology, 14, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Guéguen, N. (2003). Help on the web: The effect of the same first name between the sender and the receptor in a request made by e-mail. Psychological Record, 53, 459–466.Google Scholar
  114. Guéguen, N., & De Gail, M. A. (2003). The effect of smiling on helping behavior: Smiling and good samaritan behavior. Communication Reports, 16, 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Guéguen, N., & Fischer-Lokou, J. (2003). Tactile contact and spontaneous help. The Journal of Social Psychology, 143, 785–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Harari, H., Harari, O., & White, R. V. (1985). The reaction to rape by American male bystanders. Journal of Social Psychology, 125, 653–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Harris, M. B. (1977). Effects of altruism on mood. Journal of Social Psychology, 102, 197–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Harris, M. B., Benson, S. M., & Hall, C. L. (1975). The effects of confession on altruism. Journal of Social Psychology, 96, 187–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Hayden, S. R., Jackson, T. T., & Guydish, J. (1984). Helping behavior of females: Effects of stress and commonality of fate. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 117, 233–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Hedge, A., & Yousif, Y. H. (1992). Effects of urban size, urgency, and cost on helpfulness: A cross-cultural comparison between the United Kingdom and the Sudan. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 23, 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Henley, J., Grant, H., Elgot, J., McVeigh, K. & O’Carroll, L. (3. September 2015). Britons rally to help people fleeing war and terror in Middle East. The Guardian. Abgerufen von https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/sep/03/britons-rally-to-help-people-fleeing-war-and-terror-in-middle-east.
  123. Higgins, N. C., & Shaw, J. K. (1999). Attributional style moderates the impact of causal controllability information on helping behavior. Social Behavior and Personality, 27, 221–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Hilbe, C., Röhl, T., & Milinski, M. (2014a). Extortion subdues human players but is finally punished in the prisoner’s dilemma. Nature Communications, 5, 3976.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Hilbe, C., Wu, B., Traulsen, A., & Nowak, M. A. (2014b). Cooperation and control in multiplayer social dilemmas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111, 16425–16430.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Hohental, H. (2013). Jahrhunderthochwasser – Mein Studienort. Thieme – Via Medici. https://www.thieme.de/viamedici/mein-studienort-dresden-1580/a/Dresden-Jahrhunderthochwasser-16101.htm. Zugegriffen: 6. Jan. 2018.
  127. Homans, G. C. (1961). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt.Google Scholar
  128. Hoover, C. W., Wood, E. E., & Knowles, E. S. (1983). Forms of social awareness and helping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 577–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Hornik, J. (1987). The effect of touch and gaze upon compliance and interest of interviewees. The Journal of Social Psychology, 127, 681–683.Google Scholar
  130. Isen, A. M. (1984). Toward understanding the role of affect in cognition. In R. S. Wyer & T. K. Srull (Hrsg.), Handbook of social cognition (Bd. 20, S. 179–236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  131. Isen, A. M. (1987). Positive affect, cognitive processes, and social behavior. In L. Berkowitz (Hrsg.), Advances in experimental social psychology, 20 (S. 203–253). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  132. Isen, A. M. (1999). Positive affect. In T. Dalgleish & M. J. Power (Hrsg.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (S. 521–539). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  133. Isen, A. M., & Levin, P. F. (1972). Effect of feeling good on helping: Cookies and kindness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 384–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Isen, A. M., & Simmonds, S. F. (1978). The effect of feeling good on a helping task that is incompatible with good mood. Social Psychology, 41, 346–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Jäger, M., & Minarek, K. (2006). Nur Mut! Zivilcourage lernen: Infos, Tipps und Übungen für Jugendliche. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Jugend Und Bildung e. V. https://www.vielfalt-mediathek.de/data/nurmut.pdf. Zugegriffen: 15. Nov. 2019.
  136. Janoff-Bulman, R., & Leggatt, H. K. (2002). Culture and social obligation: When „shoulds“ are perceived as „wants“. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 260–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Jason, L. A., Rose, T., Ferrari, J. R., & Barone, R. (1984). Personal versus impersonal methods for recruiting blood donations. Journal of Social Psychology, 123, 139–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Johnston, J., & Ettema, J. (1986). Using television to best advantage: Research for prosocial TV. In J. Bryant & D. Zillman (Hrsg.), Perspectives on media effects (S. 143–164). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  139. Jonas, K., & Brandstätter, V. (2004). Zivilcourage. Zeitschrift Für Sozialpsychologie, 35, 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Jonas, K., Boos, M., & Brandstätter, V. (2007). Zivilcourage trainieren!: Theorie und Praxis. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  141. Jorgenson, D. O., & Papciak, A. S. (1981). The effects of communication, resource feedback, and identifiability on behavior in a simulated commons. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 373–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Karabenick, S. A., Lerner, R. M., & Beecher, M. D. (1973). Relation of political affiliation to helping behavior on Election Day, November 7, 1972. Journal of Social Psychology, 91, 223–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Karasawa, K. (1991). The effects of onset and offset responsibility on affects and helping judgments. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 482–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Kashima, Y., Kashima, E., Chiu, C. Y., Farsides, T., Gelfand, M., Hong, Y. Y., et al. (2005). Culture, essentialism, and agency: Are individuals universally believed to be more real entities than groups? European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 147–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Keating, C. F., Randall, D. W., Kendrick, T., & Gutshall, K. A. (2003). Do babyfaced adults receive more help? The (cross-cultural) case of the lost resume. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27, 89–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Kemmelmeier, M., Jambor, E. E., & Letner, J. (2006). Individualism and good works: Cultural variation in giving and volunteering across the united states. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 37, 327–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Kleine-Brockhoff, T. (25. April 1997). Vergewaltigung in der S-Bahn: Fürs Wegsehen gibt es viele Gründe. Die Zeit.Google Scholar
  148. Komorita, S. S., & Barth, J. M. (1985). Components of reward in social dilemmas. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 364–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Korte, C. (1971). Effects of individual responsibility and group communication on help-giving in an emergency. Human Relations, 24, 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Korte, C. (1980). Urban-nonurban differences in social behavior and social psychological models of urban impact. Journal of Social Issues, 36, 29–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Kruger, D. J. (2003). Evolution and altruism: Combining psychological mediators with naturally selected tendencies. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24, 118–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Kurzban, R. (2001). The social psychophysics of cooperation: Nonverbal communication in a public goods game. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25, 241–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. L’Armand, K., & Pepitone, A. (1975). Helping to reward another person: A cross-cultural analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 189–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Latané, B. (1981). The psychology of social impact. American Psychologist, 36, 343–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Latané, B., & Darley, J. M. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 215–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Latané, B., & Darley, J. M. (1970). The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn’t he help? New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  157. Latané, B., & Nida, S. (1981). Ten years of research on group size and helping. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 308–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Latané, B., & Rodin, J. (1969). A lady in distress: Inhibiting effects of friends and strangers on bystander intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, 189–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Lawler, E. J., & Thye, S. R. (1999). Bringing emotions into social exchange theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 217–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Lerner, M. J. (1980). The belief in a just world: A fundamental delusion. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Leung, K., & Bond, M. H. (1984). The impact of cultural collectivism on reward allocation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 793–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Levine, R. V., Martinez, T. S., Brase, G., & Sorenson, K. (1994). Helping in 36 U.S. cities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Levine, R. V., Reysen, S., & Ganz, E. (2008). The kindness of strangers revisited: a comparison of 24 US cities. Social Indicators Research, 85, 461–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Levy, S. R., Freitas, A. L., & Salovey, P. (2002). Construing action abstractly and blurring social distinctions: Implications for perceiving homogeneity among, but also empathizing with and helping, others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1224–1238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Lorenz, K. (1943). Die angeborenen Formen möglicher Erfahrung. Zeitschrift Für Tierpsychologie, 5, 235–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Luks, A. (1988). Helper’s high: Volunteering makes people feel good, physically and emotionally. Psychology Today, 22, 34–42.Google Scholar
  167. MacGeorge, E. L. (2003). Gender differences in attributions and emotions in helping contexts. Sex Roles, 48, 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Magoo, G., & Khanna, R. (1991). Altruism and willingness to donate blood. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies, 7, 21–24.Google Scholar
  169. Manucia, G. K., Baumann, D. J., & Cialdini, R. B. (1984). Mood influences on helping: Direct effects or side effects? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 357–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Markey, P. M. (2000). Bystander intervention in computer-mediated communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 183–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Maynard Smith, J. (1964). Group selection and kin selection. Nature, 201, 1145–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. A. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. McGuire, A. M. (2003). „It was nothing“-Extending evolutionary models of altruism by two social cognitive biases in judgments of the costs and benefits of helping. Social Cognition, 21, 363–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. McHoskey, J. W. (1999). Machiavellianism, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals, and social interest: A self-determination theory analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 23, 267–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. McMillen, D. L., Sanders, D. Y., & Solomon, G. S. (1977). Self-esteem, attentiveness, and helping behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, 257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. McVittie, C., Harris, L., & Tiliopoulos, N. (2006). „I intend to donate but …“: Non-donors’ views of blood donation in the UK. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 11, 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Meyer, G., Dovermann, U., Frech, S., & Gugel, G. (Hrsg.). (2004). Zivilcourage lernen: Analysen-Modelle-Arbeitshilfen. Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.Google Scholar
  178. Midlarsky, M., & Midlarsky, E. (1976). Status inconsistency, aggressive attitude, and helping behavior. Journal of Personality, 44, 371–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Milgram, S. (1970). The experience of living in cities. Science, 167, 1461–1468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Miller, D. T., & McFarland, C. (1991). When social comparison goes awry: The case of pluralistic ignorance. In J. Suls & T. A. Wills (Hrsg.), Social comparison: Contemporary theory and research (S. 287–313). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  181. Miller, J. G., Bersoff, D. M., & Harwood, R. L. (1990). Perceptions of social responsibilities in India and in the United States: Moral imperatives or personal decisions? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 33–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Moghaddam, F. M., Taylor, D. M., & Wright, S. C. (1993). Social psychology in cross-cultural perspective. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  183. Moriarty, T. (1975). Crime, commitment, and the responsive bystander: Two field experiments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 370–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Neuberg, S. L., Cialdini, R. B., Brown, S. L., Luce, C., Sagarin, B. J., & Lewis, B. P. (1997). Does empathy lead to anything more than superficial helping? Comment on Batson et al. (1997). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 510–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. North, A. C., Tarrant, M., & Hargreaves, D. J. (2004). The effects of music on helping behavior: A field study. Environment and Behavior, 36, 266–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Omoto, A. M., & Snyder, M. (1995). Sustained helping without obligation: Motivation, longevity of service, and perceived attitude change among AIDS volunteers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 671–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Orbell, J. M., van de Kragt, A. J. C., & Dawes, R. M. (1988). Explaining discussion-induced cooperation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 811–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Özelsel, A. (2006). When refusal-goals turn into acquiescence behavior: Gender differences following refusal priming – a goal systems account. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. International University Bremen, Germany. Abgerufen von http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-201305225892.
  189. Pantin, H. M., & Carver, C. S. (1982). Induced competence and the bystander effect. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 12, 100–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Paulsell, S., & Goldman, M. (1984). The effect of touching different body areas on prosocial behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 122, 269–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Peirce, C. S. (1983). Phänomen und Logik der Zeichen [1903]. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  192. Penner, L. A., & Finkelstein, M. A. (1998). Dispositional and structural determinants of volunteerism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 525–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Penner, L. A., Fritzsche, B. A., Craiger, J. P., & Freifeld, T. S. (1995). Measuring the prosocial personality. In J. N. Butcher & C. D. Spielberger (Hrsg.), Advances in personality assessment (Bd. 10, S. 147–163). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  194. Perlow, L., & Weeks, J. (2002). Who’s helping whom? Layers of culture and workplace behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 345–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Piliavin, J. A., & Charng, H. (1990). Altruism: A review of recent theory and research. Annual Review of Sociology, 16, 27–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Piliavin, J. A., & Piliavin, I. M. (1972). Effect of blood on reactions to a victim. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23, 353–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Piliavin, I. M., Rodin, J., & Piliavin, J. A. (1969). Good Samaritanism: An underground phenomenon? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 289–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Piliavin, I. M., Piliavin, J. A., & Rodin, J. (1975). Costs, diffusion, and the stigmatized victim. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 429–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Piliavin, J. A., Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., & Clark, R. D. (1981). Emergency intervention. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  200. Piliavin, J. A., Evans, D. E., & Callero, P. L. (1984). Learning to „give to unnamed strangers“: The process of commitment to regular blood donation. In E. Staub, D. Bar-Tal, J. Karylowski, & J. Reykowski (Hrsg.), Development and maintenance of prosocial behavior: International perspectives on positive morality (S. 471–492). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Piliavin, J. A., Grube, J. A., & Callero, P. L. (2002). Role as a resource for action in public service. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 469–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Prentice, D. A., & Miller, D. T. (2007). Psychological essentialism of human categories. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 202–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Press, W. H., & Dyson, F. J. (2012). Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma contains strategies that dominate any evolutionary opponent. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 10409–10413.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Prøitz, L. (2015). The strength of weak commitment: A Norwegian response to the Aylan Kurdi images. (F. Vis & O. Goriunova, Hrsg.), The Iconic Image on Social Media: A Rapid Research Response to the Death of Aylan Kurdi. Abgerufen von http://visualsocialmedialab.org/projects/the-iconic-image-on-social-media.
  205. Pruitt, D. G., & Kimmel, M. J. (1977). Twenty years of experimental gaming: Critique, synthesis, and suggestions for the future. Annual Review of Psychology, 28, 363–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Pruitt, D. G., & Rubin, J. Z. (1986). Social conflict: Escalation, stalemate, and settlement. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  207. Pyszczynski, T., & Greenberg, J. (1987). Self-regulatory perseveration and the depressive self-focusing style: A self-awareness theory of reactive depression. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 122–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Regan, P. C., & Gutierrez, D. M. (2006). Effects of participants’ sex and targets’ perceived need on supermarket helping behavior. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 101, 617–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Reisenzein, R. (1986). A structural equation analysis of Weiner’s attribution-affect model of helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1123–1133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Rhodes, M., Leslie, S.-J., & Tworek, C. M. (2012). Cultural transmission of social essentialism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 13526–13531.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Rodriguez, H., Trainor, J., & Quarantelli, E. L. (2006). Rising to the challenges of a catastrophe: The emergent and prosocial behavior following Hurricane Katrina. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604, 82–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Rogers, S. (2015). What can search data tell us about how the story of Aylan Kurdi spread around the world? (O. Goriunova & F. Vis, Hrsg.), The Iconic Image on Social Media: A Rapid Research Response to the Death of Aylan Kurdi. Abgerufen von What can search data tell us about how the story of Aylan Kurdi spread around the world?Google Scholar
  213. Rudolph, U., Roesch, S. C., Greitemeyer, T., & Weiner, B. (2004). A meta-analytic review of help giving and aggression from an attributional perspective: Contributions to a general theory of motivation. Cognition and Emotion, 18, 815–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Rushton, J. P. (1975). Generosity in children: Immediate and long-term effects of modeling, preaching, and moral judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 459–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Rushton, J. P. (1989). Genetic similarity in male friendships. Ethology and Sociobiology, 10, 361–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Rushton, J. P., & Campbell, A. C. (1977). Modeling, vicarious reinforcement and extraversion on blood donating in adults: Immediate and long-term effects. European Journal of Social Psychology, 7, 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Rutkowski, G. K., Gruder, C. L., & Romer, D. (1983). Group cohesiveness, social norms, and bystander intervention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 545–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., & Rosenhan, D. L. (1991). Mood and helping: Mood as a motivator of helping and helping as a regulator of mood. In M. S. Clark (Hrsg.), Prosocial behavior (S. 215–237). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  219. Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., Pierce, G. R., Shearin, E. N., & Sayers, M. H. (1991). A social learning approach to increasing blood donations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 896–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., Slichter, S. J., Beatty, P. G., Meyer, D. M., & Bolgiano, D. C. (1993). Increasing participation of blood donors in a bone-marrow registry. Health Psychology, 12, 272–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Schaller, M., & Cialdini, R. B. (1988). The economics of empathic helping: Support for a mood management motive. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 163–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Schmidt, G., & Weiner, B. (1988). An attribution-affectaction theory of behavior: Replications of judgments of help-giving. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14, 610–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Schoenrade, P. A., Batson, C. D., Brandt, J. R., & Loud, R. E. (1986). Attachment, accountability, and motivation to benefit another not in distress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 557–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Schwartz, D. (22. Oktober 2011). Was the law at fault in Chinese toddler tragedy? CBC News. Abgerufen von http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/was-the-law-at-fault-in-chinese-toddler-tragedy-1.1034814.
  225. Schwartz, S. H. (1968). Words, deeds and the perception of consequences and responsibility in action situations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 232–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Schwartz, S. H. (1975). The justice of need and the activation of humanitarian norms. Journal of Social Issues, 31, 111–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Schwartz, S. H. (1977). Normative influences on altrusim. In L. Berkowitz (Hrsg.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Bd. 10, S. 221–279). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  228. Schwartz, S. H., & David, A. B. (1976). Responsibility and helping in an emergency: Effects of blame, ability and denial of responsibility. Sociometry, 39, 406–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Schwartz, S. H., & Gottlieb, A. (1976). Bystander reactions to a violent theft: Crime in Jerusalem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1188–1199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Schwarzer, R., & Weiner, B. (1991). Stigma controllability and coping as predictors of emotions and social support. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8, 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Shaffer, D. R., & Graziano, W. G. (1983). Effects of positive and negative moods on helping tasks having pleasant or unpleasant consequences. Motivation and Emotion, 7, 269–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Shaffer, D. R., Rogel, M., & Hendrick, C. (1975). Intervention in the library: The effect of increased responsibility on bystanders’ willingness to prevent a theft. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 5, 303–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Shavit, Y., Fischer, C. S., & Koresh, Y. (1994). Kin and nonkin under collective threat: Israeli networks during the Gulf War. Social Forces, 72, 1197–1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Shaw, L. L., Batson, C. D., & Todd, R. M. (1994). Empathy avoidance: Forestalling feeling for another in order to escape the motivational consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 879–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Shotland, R. L., & Heinold, W. D. (1985). Bystander response to arterial bleeding: Helping skills, the decision-making process, and differentiating the helping response. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 347–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Shotland, R. L., & Stebbins, C. A. (1980). Bystander response to rape: Can a victim attract help? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 10, 510–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Silk, J. B., & House, B. R. (2011). Evolutionary foundations of human prosocial sentiments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 10910–10917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Simon, H. A. (1990). A mechanism for social selection and successful altruism. Science, 250, 1665–1668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Singer, K. (2003). Zivilcourage wagen: Wie man lernt, sich einzumischen. München: Ernst Reinhardt.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Slovic, P. (2010). If I look at the mass I will never act: Numbing and genocide. In S. Roeser (Hrsg.), Emotions and Risky Technologies (S. 37–59). Dordrecht: Springer, Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Small, D. A., & Loewenstein, G. (2003). Helping a victim or helping the victim: Altruism and identifiability. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 26, 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Small, D. A., Loewenstein, G., & Strnad, J. (2006). Statistical, identifiable and iconic victims and perpetrators. In E. J. McCaffery & J. Slemrod (Hrsg.), Behavioral public finance (S. 32–46). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  243. Smith, R. E., Vanderbilt, K., & Callen, M. B. (1973). Social comparison and bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 3, 186–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Snyder, M., Grether, J., & Keller, K. (1974). Staring and compliance: A field experiment on hitchhiking. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 4, 165–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Solomon, L. Z., Solomon, H., & Stone, R. (1978). Helping as a function of number of bystanders and ambiguity of emergency. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4, 318–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Solomon, H., Solomon, L. Z., Arnone, M. M., Maur, B. J., Reda, R. M., & Roth, E. O. (1981). Anonymity and helping. Journal of Social Psychology, 113, 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Sprafkin, J. N., Liebert, R. M., & Poulos, R. W. (1975). Effects of a prosocial televised example on children’s helping. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 20, 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Steblay, N. M. (1987). Helping behavior in rural and urban environments: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 346–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Steele, C. M., Critchlow, B., & Liu, T. J. (1985). Alcohol and social behavior: II. The helpful drunkard. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 35–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Steg, L., & Groot, J. (2010). Explaining prosocial intentions: Testing causal relationships in the norm activation model. British Journal of Social Psychology, 49, 725–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Stein, A. H., & Friedrich, L. K. (1972). Television content and young children’s behavior. In J. P. Murray, E. A. Rubenstein, & G. A. Comstock (Hrsg.), Television and social behavior. Reports and papers, Volume II: Television and social learning (S. 202–317). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  252. Stewart, A. J., & Plotkin, J. B. (2012). Extortion and cooperation in the Prisoner’s Dilemma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 10134–10135.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Stewart, A. J., & Plotkin, J. B. (2013). From extortion to generosity, evolution in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110, 15348–15353.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Stewart, A. J., & Plotkin, J. B. (2014). Collapse of cooperation in evolving games. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111, 17558–17563.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Stich, M. H., Weiss, R. F., Cramer, R. E., & Feinberg, R. A. (1987). Reinforcing functions of altruism and leaving the scene. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 121, 459–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Stukas, A. A., Snyder, M., & Clary, E. G. (1999). The effects of „mandatory volunteerism“ on intentions to volunteer. Psychological Science, 10, 59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Stürmer, S., Snyder, M., & Omoto, A. M. (2005). Prosocial emotions and helping: The moderating role of group membership. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 532–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Switzer, G., Carlo, G., Eisenberg, N., Troyer, D., & Speer, A. L. (1991). The altruistic personality: In what contexts is it apparent? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 450–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Szolnoki, A., & Perc, M. (2014). Evolution of extortion in structured populations. Physical Review E, 89, 022804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Szolnoki, A., & Perc, M. (2015). Defection and extortion as unexpected catalysts of unconditional cooperation in structured populations. Scientific Reports, 4, 5496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social Psychology of groups. Oxford, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  262. Toi, M., & Batson, C. D. (1982). More evidence that empathy is a source of altruistic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46, 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Trobst, K. K., Collins, R. L., & Embree, J. M. (1994). The role of emotion in social support provision: Gender, empathy and expressions of distress. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11, 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Vaish, A., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2009). Sympathy through affective perspective taking and its relation to prosocial behavior in toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 45, 534–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Valentine, M. E. (1980). The attenuating influence of gaze upon the bystander intervention effect. Journal of Social Psychology, 111, 197–203.Google Scholar
  267. van Baaren, R. B., Holland, R. W., Kawakami, K., & van Knippenberg, A. (2004). Mimicry and Prosocial Behavior. Psychological Science, 15, 71–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. van Bommel, M., van Prooijen, J.-W., Elffers, H., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2012). Be aware to care: Public self-awareness leads to a reversal of the bystander effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 926–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Verkuyten, M. (2003). Discourses about ethnic group (de-)essentialism: Oppressive and progressive aspects. British Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 371–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Vis, F., & Goriunova, O. (2015). The iconic image on social media: A rapid research response to the death of Aylan Kurdi. http://visualsocialmedialab.org/projects/the-iconic-image-on-social-media. Zugegriffen: 12. Jan. 2017.
  271. Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2006). Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees. Science, 311, 1301–1303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Wayment, H. A. (2006). Attachment style, empathy, and helping following a collective loss: Evidence from the September 11 terrorist attacks. Attachment and Human Development, 8, 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Weiner, B. (1980). A cognitive (attribution)-emotionaction model of motivated behavior: An analysis of judgments of help-giving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 186–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Weiss, R. F., Buchanan, W., Altstatt, L., & Lombardo, J. P. (1971). Altruism is rewarding. Science, 171, 1262–1263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Weiss, R. F., Boyer, J. L., Lombardo, J. P., & Stich, M. H. (1973). Altruistic drive and altruistic reinforcement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25, 390–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. West, S. G., & Brown, T. J. (1975). Physical attractiveness, the severity of the emergency and helping: A field experiment and interpersonal simulation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 11, 531–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Williamson, G. M., & Clark, M. S. (1989). Providing help and desired relationship type as determinants of changes in moods and self-evaluations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 722–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Wilson, D. W. (1981). Is helping a laughing matter? Psychology: A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 18, 6–9.Google Scholar
  279. Wiswede, G. (2004). Sozialpsychologie-Lexikon. München: Oldenbourg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Wood, J. V., Saltzberg, J. A., & Goldsamt, L. A. (1990). Does affect induce self-focused attention? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 899–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Wu, J., & Axelrod, R. (1995). How to cope with noise in the iterated prisoner’s dilemma. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 39, 183–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Yakimovich, D., & Saltz, E. (1971). Helping behavior: The cry for help. Psychonomic Science, 23, 427–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fachgebiet Wirtschafts- und OrganisationspsychologieUniversität HohenheimStuttgartDeutschland
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorwegen
  3. 3.Zentrum für Soziales und Ökonomisches Verhalten (C-SEB)Universität zu KölnKölnDeutschland

Personalised recommendations