Kinds of Top-Down Causation

  • George EllisEmail author
Part of the The Frontiers Collection book series (FRONTCOLL)


Top-down causation is a generic concept. The previous chapters have given many examples.


Symbolic System Feedback Control System Abstract Entity Adaptive Selection Multilevel Selection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    H. Abelson, G.J. Sussman, J. Sussman, Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs (MIT Press, 1996)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Aitchison, Linguistics (Hodder and Stoughton, Seven Oaks, 1987)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Aitchison, Words in the Mind (Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.M. Alexander, Evolutionary game theory, in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Fall 2009 edn. ed. by E.N. Zalta (2009).
  5. 5.
    U. Alon, An Introduction to Systems Biology: Design Principles of Biological Circuits (Chapman and Hall /CRC, London, 2007)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Arnheim, Visual Thinking (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1969)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W.R. Ashby, Design for a Brain. See Feedback, Adaptation and Stability: Selected Passages from Design for a Brain (1960). Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Astrom, Adaptive Control (Dover, 2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Auletta, G.F.R. Ellis, L. Jaeger, Top-down causation: from a philosophical problem to a scientific research program. J. R. Soc. Interface 5, 1159–1172 (2008). arXiv:0710.4235 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.-L. Barabási, Z.N. Oltvai, Network biology: understanding the cell’s functional organization. Nat. Rev. Genet. 5, 101–114 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Beer, Decision and Control (Wiley, New York, 1966)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Beer, Brain of the Firm (Wiley, Chichester, 1981)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.H. Bennett, Notes on Landauer’s principle, reversible computation and Maxwell’s demon. Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys. 34, 501–510 (2003)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Berger, T. Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (Anchor, New York, 1967)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Bickerton, Language and Human Behaviour (University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.H. Bickhard, D.T. Campbell, Variations in variation and selection: the ubiquity of the variation-and-selective-retention ratchet in emergent organizational complexity. Found. Sci. 8, 215–282 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Binney, S. Tremain, Galactic Dynamics (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1987)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. Birney, Come fly with us. Nature 450, 184–185 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.M. Bishop, Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.C. Bishop, Fluid convection, constraint and causation. Interface Focus 2, 4–12 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    F. Black, M. Scholes, The pricing of options and corporate liabilities. J. Polit. Econ. 81, 637–654 (1973)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Booch, Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications (Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, 2007)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Booz, Allen, and Hamilton: Earned Value Management Tutorial Module 2: Work Breakdown Structure, US Department of Energy: Office of Science, Tools and Resources for Project Management.
  24. 24.
    K.E. Boulding, Economics as a Science (McGraw Hill, New York, 1970)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V. Brattka, Computability Theory (University of Cape Town Notes, 2011)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S.C. Brenner, L.R. Scott, The Mathematical Theory of Finite Element Methods (Springer, Heidelberg, 2007)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Bronowski, The Ascent of Man (London: BBC Books, 1973). (reprint 2011)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    W. Brown, N. Murphy, Did My Neurons Make Me Do it? Philosophical and Neurobiological Perspectives on Moral Responsibility and Free Will (Oxford University Press, New York, 2007)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Burling, The Talking Ape: How Language Evolved (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    F.M. Burnet, The Clonal Selection Theory of Acquired Immunity (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. Burns, To a mouse, on turning her up in her nest with the plough, in Kilmarnock Volume (John Wilson, Kilmarnock, 1785)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J.R. Busemeyer, Dynamic systems, in Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Macmillan, 2011).
  33. 33.
    E. Callaway, Behaviour genes unearthed: speedy sequencing underpins genetic analysis of burrowing in wild oldfield mice. Nature 493, 284 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    D.T. Campbell, Downward Causation, in Studies in the Philosophy of Biology: Reduction and Related Problems, ed. by F.J. Ayala, T. Dobhzansky (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1974)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    D.T. Campbell, Evolutionary epistemology, in Evolutionary Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge (Open Court Publishing, 1987), pp. 47–89Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    N.A. Campbell, J.B. Reece, Biology (Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, 2005)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    G.A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg, Pattern Recognition by Self-Organising Neural Networks (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1991)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Carroll, From Eternity to Here: The Quest for the Ultimate Arrow of Time (Dutton, New York, 2010)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    P. Churchland, Plato’s Camera (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2012)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. Conway Morris, Life’s Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    R. Courant, D. Hilbert, Methods of Mathematical Physics II (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1962)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    F. Crick, Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul (Scribner, 1995)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Damasio, Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain (Avon Books, New York, 1995)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    A. Damasio, The Feeling of What Happens: Body, Emotion, and the Making of Consciousness (Harcourt, New York, 1999)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    P. Dayan, L. Abbot, Theoretical Neuroscience: Computational and Mathematical Modelling of Neural Systems (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2001)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    T. Deacon, The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Human Brain (Penguin, London, 1997)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    T. Deacon, Universal grammar and semiotic constraints, in Language Evolution, ed. by M. Christiansen, S. Kirby (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003), pp. 111–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    R.L. Devaney, An Introduction to Chaotic Dynamical Systems (Basic Books, 2003)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    K. Devlin, Mathematics: The Science of Patterns: The Search for Order in Life, Mind and the Universe (Scientific American Paperback Library, 1996)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    E. de Waal, C. Borgeaud, A. White, Potent social learning and conformity shape a wild primate’s foraging decisions. Science 26, 483–485 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    J.J. DiStefano, A.R. Stubberud, I.J. Williams, Feedback and Control Systems (Schaum’s Outlines) (McGraw Hill, New York, 1995)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    S. Dodelson, Modern Cosmology (Academic Press, San Diego, 2003)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    M. Donald, Origins of the Modern Mind (Harvard University Press, 1991)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    R. Dunbar, Human Evolution (Pelican Books, London, 2014)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. Durrant, Quantum Physics of Matter (Institute of Physics and the Open University, Bristol, 2000)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    G.M. Edelman, Neural Darwinism: The Theory of Group Neuronal Selection (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    G.M. Edelman, Brilliant Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of Mind (Basic Books, New York, 1992)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    G.M. Edelman, G. Tononi, Consciousness: How Matter Becomes Imagination (Penguin Books, London, 2001)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    W. Edwards, Conservatism in human information processing, in Judgement under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, ed. by D. Kahneman, P. Slovic, A. Tversky (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1982), pp. 359–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    M. Eigen, P. Schuster, The Hypercycle: A Principle of Natural Organisation (Springer, Berlin, 1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    D. Elder-Vass, The Causal Power of Social Structures: Emergence, Structure and Agency (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    G.F.R. Ellis, On the nature of causation in complex systems. Trans. R. Soc. S. Afr. 63, 69–84 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    G.F.R. Ellis, Commentary on ‘An Evolutionarily Informed Education Science’ by David C Geary. Educ. Psychol. 43, 206–213 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    G.F.R. Ellis, Top-down causation and emergence: Some comments on mechanisms. J. R. Soc. Interface Focus 2, 126–140 (2012). Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    G.F.R. Ellis, On the limits of quantum theory: contextuality and the quantum-classical cut. Ann. Phys. 327, 1890–1932 (2012)ADSMathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    G.F.R. Ellis, The arrow of time and the nature of spacetime. Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci. Part B Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys. 44, 242–262 (2013). arXiv:1302.7291,
  67. 67.
    G.F.R. Ellis, J. Toronchuk, Neural development: affective and immune system influences, in Consciousness and Emotion: Agency, Conscious Choice, and Selective Perception, ed. by R.D. Ellis, N. Newton (John Benjamins, 2005), pp. 81–119Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    J. Feldmann, From Molecule to Metaphor: A Neural Theory of Language (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2006)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    R.P. Feynman, R.B. Leighton, M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics: Mainly Mechanics, Radiation, and Heat (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, 1963)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    R.P. Feynman, R.B. Leighton, M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics: The Electromagnetic Field (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, 1963)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    R.P. Feynman, R.B. Leighton, M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics: Quantum Mechanics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, 1965)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    W.T. Fitch, M.D. Hauser, N. Chomsky, The evolution of the language faculty: clarifications and implications. Cognition 97, 179–210 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    D. Fleisch, A Student’s Guide to Maxwell’s Equations (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    R.L. Flood, E.R. Carson, Dealing with Complexity: An Introduction to the Theory and Application of Systems Science (Plenum Press, London, 1990)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    A.D. Flurkey, E.J. Paulsen, K.S. Goodman, Scientific Realism in Studies of Reading (Laurence Erlbaum, New York, 2008)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    B. Flyvbjerg, T. Landman, S. Schram, Real Social Science: Applied Phronesis (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    E. Fox Keller, The Century of the Gene (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2000)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    V. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning (Beacon Press, 2006)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    C. Frith, Making up the Mind: How the Brain Creates Our Mental World (Blackwell, Malden, 2007)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    A. Gardner, The Price equation. Curr. Biol. 18, R198 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    M. Gell-Mann, The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex (Abacus, London, 1994)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    P. Glendinning, Stability, Instability and Chaos: An Introduction to the Theory of Non-Linear Differential Equations (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    S.F. Gilbert, Developmental Biology (Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, 2006)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    S. Gilbert, D. Epel, Ecological Developmental Biology (Sinauer, 2009)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    J.H. Gillespie, Population Genetics (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2004)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    G. Gigerenzer, Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    K.S. Goodman, Reading: a psycholinguistic guessing game, in Language and Literacy: The Selected Writiings of Kenneth Goodman, vol. 1, ed. by F.V. Gollasch (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1967), pp. 33–44Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    A. Gopnik, A.N. Meltzhoff, P.K. Kuhl, The Scientist in the Crib (Harper Collins, New York, 1999)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    P. Gray, Psychology (Worth Publishers, New York, 2011)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    R.J. Greenspan, An Introduction to Nervous Systems (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, 2007)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    R.W. Griffin, Management (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1987)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    A.C. Guyton, Basic Human Physiology: Normal Function and Mechanisms of Disease (W B Saunders, Philadelphia, 1977), pp. 4–5Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    J. Haidt, S. Kesebir, Morality, in Handbook of Social Psychology, ed. by S. Fiske, D. Gilbert, G. Lindzey (Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, 2010)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    T. Harford, Adapt: Why Success Always Starts with Failure (Abacus, London, 2011)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    L.H. Hartwell, J.J. Hopfeld, A.W. Murray, From molecular to systems biology. Nature 402, C47–C52 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    M.D. Hauser, N. Chomsky, W.T. Fitch, The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science 298, 1569–1579 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    J. Hawkins, On Intelligence (Holt Paperbacks, New York, 2004)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    J.C. Higgins, Information Systems for Planning and Control: Concepts and Cases (Edward Arnold, London, 1976)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    A.L. Hodgkin, A.F. Huxley, A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. J. Physiol. 117, 500–544 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    M. Hoey, Lexical Priming: A New Theory of Words and Language (Routledge, London, 2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    P.M. Hoffmann, Life’s Ratchets: How Molecular Machines Extract Order from Chaos (Basic Books, New York, 2012)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    D.R. Hofstadter, Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (Penguin books, Harmandsworth, 1980)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    J.H. Holland, Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1992)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    J.H. Holland, Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity (Basic Books, New York, 1995)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    C.J. Isham, Lectures on Quantum Theory: Mathematical and Structural Foundations (Imperial College Press, London, 1995)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    R. Jaeger, Microelectronic Circuit Design (McGraw-Hill, 1997)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    J.C. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1967)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    D. Jones, The ritual animal. Nature 493, 470–472 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    A. Juarrero, Dynamics in Action: Intentional Behaviour as a Complex System (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2002)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    M. Kac, Can one hear the shape of a drum? Am. Math. Mon. 73, 1–23 (1966)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    D. Karnopp, R. Rosenberg, Systems Dynamics: A Unified Approach (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1975)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    S.A. Kauffman, The Origins of Order: Self-Organisation and Selection in Evolution (Oxford, New York, 1993)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    E.R. Kandel, J.H. Schwartz, T.M. Jessell, Principles of Neuroscience (McGraw Hill, New York, 2000)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    R.E. Kingsley, Concise Text of Neuroscience (Lippincot Williams and Wilkins, 1996)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    D.E. Knuth, Selected Papers on Design of Algorithms (Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford, California, 2010)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    B.-O. Kuppers, Molecular Theory of Evolution (Springer, Berlin, 1985)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    B.-O. Kuppers, Information and the Origin of Life (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1994)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    G. Lakoff, M. Johnson, Metaphors We Live by (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1980)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    R. Landauer, Irreversibility and heat generation in the computing process. IBM J. Res. Dev. 5, 183–191 (1961)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    H.S. Leff, A.F. Rex (eds.), Maxwell’s Demon: Entropy, Information, Computing (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1990)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    L. Liebenberg, The art of tracking: The origin of science (David Philip, Cape Town, 2001)
  122. 122.
    E. Lloyd, Units and levels of selection, in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2005).
  123. 123.
    J.F. Longres, Human Behavior in the Social Environment (F E Peacock Publishers, Itasca, Ill, 1990)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    E.N. Lorenz, Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 130–141 (1963)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    A.J. Lotka, Elements of Mathematical Biology (Dover, New York, 1956)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    J. MacCormack, 9 Algorithms that Changed the Future: The Ingenious Ideas that Drive Today’s Computers (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2012)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    M.M. Mano, C.R. Kime, Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals (Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2008)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    M. Martinez, A. Moya, Natural selection and multi-level causation. Philos. Theory Biol. 3(2), 1/16–16/16 (2011)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    R. Matzner, T. Rothman, G.F.R. Ellis, Conjecture on isotope production in the Bianchi cosmologies. Phys. Rev. D 34, 2926–2933 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    G. McGhee, Convergent Evolution: Limited Forms Most Beautiful (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    J. Maynard Smith, Mathematical Ideas in Biology (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1968)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    D. Meadows, Thinking in Systems: A Primer (Chelsea Green, White River Junction, 2008)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    R.E. Michod, Darwinian Dynamics: Evolutionary Transitions in Fitness and Individuality (Princeton University Press, 1999)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    J.H. Milsum, Biological Control Systems Analysis (McGraw Hill, 1966)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    M. Mitchell, An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1998)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    P.W.G. Morris, The Management of Projects (Thomas Telford, 1994)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    N. Murphy, Emergence and mental causation, in The Re-Emergence of Emergence, ed. by P. Clayton, P. Davies (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006), pp. 227–243Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    N. Murphy, G.F.R. Ellis, On the Moral Nature of the Universe (Fortress Press, Minneapolis, 1995)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    J.D. Murray, Mathematical Biology (Springer, 1990)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    D. Noble, From the Hodgkin-Huxley axon to the virtual heart. J. Physiol. 580, 15–22 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    D. Noble, A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation. Interface Focus 2, 55–64 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    M.A. Nowak, C.E. Tarnita, E.O. Wilson, The evolution of eusociality. Nature, 466, 1057–1062 (2010). For further information Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    S. Okasha, Evolution and the Levels of Selection: Toward a Broader Conception of Theoretical Biology (Oxford University Press, 2006)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    J. Panksepp, Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions (Oxford University Press, 1998)Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    J. Panksepp, The neuro-evolutionary cusp between emotions and cognitions: implications for understanding consciousness and the emergence of a unified mind science. Evol. Cogn. 7, 141–149 (2001)Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    J. Panksepp, L. Biven, The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotions (W W Norton and Company, 2012)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    S. Patterson, The Quants: How a New Breed of Math Whizzes Conquered Wall Street and Nearly Destroyed it (Crown Business, New York, 2010)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    A.R. Peacocke, An Introduction to the Physical Chemistry of Biological Organization (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    R. Penrose, The Large, the Small and the Human Mind (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    R. Penrose, Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe (Knopf, New York, 2011)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    T.J. Peters, R.H. Waterman, In Search of Excellence (Warner Books, New York, 1982)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    G.R. Price, Selection and covariance. Nature 227, 520–521 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    J.S. Price, Hypothesis: the dominance hierarchy and the evolution of mental illness. Lancet 2, 243–246 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    H. Pringle, The roots of human genius are deeper than expected, in Scientific American (2013).
  155. 155.
    A. Pross, What Is Life? How Chemistry Becomes Biology (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2012)Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    R. Rhoades, R. Pflanzer, Human Physiology (Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth, 1989)Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    P.J. Richerson, R. Boyd, Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2005)Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    D.S. Riggs, The Mathematical Approach to Physiological problems (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1972)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    E.B. Roberts, Managerial Application of System Dynamics (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1991)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    E.S. Roberts, Java: An Introduction to Computer Science (Addison Wesley, Boston, 2009)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    J.G. Roederer, Information and Its Role in Nature (Springer, Berlin, 2005)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    B. Roux, Molecular Machines (World Scientific, Singapore, 2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    M. Rosenzweig, S.M. Breedlove, A. Leiman, Biological Psychology (Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass, 2002)Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    E. Scarr, A.S. Gibbons, J. Neo, M. Udawela, B. Dean, Cholinergic connectivity: its implications for psychiatric disorders. Front. Cell. Neurosci. 7, 55 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    G. Schlosser, G.P. Wagner, Modularity in Evolution and Development (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2004)Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    A. Scott, Stairway to the Mind (Springer, New York, 1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    J.R. Searle, Making the Social World: The Structure of Human Civilisation (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011)Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    P.M. Senge, The Fifth Discipline (Century Business, London, 1990)Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    S. Seung, Connectome: How the Brain’s Wiring Makes Us Who We Are (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, 2012)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    J.L. Shearer, A.T. Murphy, H.H. Richardson, System Dynamics (Addison Wesley, Reading, Mass, 1971)Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    D.M. Shepherd, D.P. Martin, A. Varsani, J.A. Thomson, E.P. Rybicki, H.H. Klump, Restoration of native folding of single stranded DNA sequences through reverse mutations: An indication of a new epigenetic mechanism. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 453, 108–122 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    J. Silk, The Big Bang (Freeman, New York, 2001)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    H.A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1992)Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    R. Sinnott, G. Towler, Chemical Engineering Design (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2009)Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    J.M.W. Slack, From Egg to Embryo: Regional Specification in Early Development (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    L.A. Steen, The science of patterns. Science 240, 611–616 (1988)ADSMathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    A. Stevens, J. Price, Evolutionary Psychiatry: A New Beginning (Routledge, 2000)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    G.F. Striedter, Principles of Brain Evolution (Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass, 2005)Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    J. Sutter, Multimodality: moving beyond ‘language’/rethinking ‘meaning’. Lang. Issues 20, 53–60 (2008)Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    R. Thom, Structural Stability and Morphogenesis: An Outline of a General Theory of Models (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1989)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    K.S. Thorne, Primordial element formation, primordial magnetic fields, and the isotropy of the universe. Astrophys. J. 148, 51–68 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    J.H.M. Thornley, Mathematical Models in Plant Physiology (Academic Press, London, 1975)Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    J.A. Toronchuk, G.F.R. Ellis, Disgust: sensory affect or primary emotional system? Cogn. Emot. 21, 1799–1818 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    J.A. Toronchuk, G.F.R. Ellis, Affective neuronal selection: the nature of the primordial emotion systems. Front. Psychol. 3, 589 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    R.L. Trask, Language and Linguistics: The Key Concepts (Routledge, Abingdon, 2007)Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    S. Vogel, Cats’ Paws and Catapults: Mechanical Worlds of Nature and People (W W Norton and Company, 2000)Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    A. Wagner, The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    R.V. Wagoner, W. Fowler, F. Hoyle, On the synthesis of elements at very high temperatures. Astrophys. J. 148, 3–49 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    S.I. Walker, L. Cisneros, P.C.W. Davies, Evolutionary transitions and top-down causation, in Proceedings of Artificial Life XIII, 283–290 (2012). arXiv:1207.4808
  190. 190.
    J.D. Watson, T.A. Baker, S.P. Bell, A. Gann, M. Levine, R. Losick, The Molecular Biology of the Gene (Benjamin Cummings, 2003)Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    J.N. Weber, B.K. Peterson, H.E. Hoekstra, Discrete genetic modules are responsible for complex burrow evolution in Peromyscus mice. Nature 493, 402–405 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    B. Wegscheid, C. Condon, R.K. Hartmann, Type A and type B RNase P RNAs are interchangeable in vivo despite substantial biophysical differences. EMBO Rep. 7, 411–417 (2006)Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    D. Weigel, C. Dean, Development, evolution and adaptation. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 5, 11–13 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    M.J. West-Eberhard, Developmental Plasticity and Evolution (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003)Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    E. Wigner, The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences. Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 13, 1–14 (1960)ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    G.C. Williams, Adaptation and Natural Selection (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1992)Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    S. Zhang, M. Srinivasan, Exploration of cognitive capacity in honeybees: higher functions emerge from a small brain, in Complex Worlds from Simpler Nervous Systems, ed. by F.R. Prete (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2004)Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    J.M. Ziman, Principles of the Theory of Solids (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1979)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    W.H. Zurek, Decoherence, einselection, and the quantum origins of the classical. Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 715 (2003). Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mathematics and Applied MathematicsUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations