A Semantic Approach for Representing and Querying Business Processes

  • Eleni-Maria KalogerakiEmail author
  • Dimitris Apostolou
  • Themis Panayiotopoulos
  • George Tsihrintzis
  • Stamatios Theocharis
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 627)


As business information is getting more and more difficult to manage, business entities are increasingly adopting business process management practices and tools, providing new models and techniques for process-related information management. In parallel, semantic web technologies are emerging, which are capable of providing methodologies and tools to represent and process the semantic content of business processes. Applying semantic web technologies in business process management can enhance process understanding and can facilitate querying for pertinent process information. This chapter discusses the challenges and benefits associated with the coupling of semantic technologies with business process management and describes a methodology for representing the semantic content of the BPMN specification in the form of ontology. Moreover, it explores query mechanisms for conventional and semantics-based querying of business models.


BPMN Business process model Business process management Knowledge management Semantic process model BPMN ontology Information retrieval Query language 


  1. Atkinson, C.: Models versus ontologies—What’s the difference and where does it Matter?. Presentation for University of Birmingham, 19 April 2007Google Scholar
  2. BOC Group.: Volume 2: Users Manual. Adonis Version 5 (2012)Google Scholar
  3. Bergener, P., Delfmann, P., Weiss, B., Winkelmann, A.: Detecting potential weaknesses in business processes: an exploration of semantic pattern matching in process models. Bus. Process Manag. J. 21(1), 25–54 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fernández, H.F., Palacios-González, E., García-Díaz, V., Sanjuán Martínez, O., Lovelle, C.J.M.: SBPMN—an easier business process modeling notation for business users. Comput. Stand. Interf. 32(1–2), 18–28 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fill, H.-G.: On the Conceptualization of a Modeling Language for Semantic Model Annotations. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, vol. 83, pp. 134–148. Springer, Berlin (2011)Google Scholar
  6. Fill, H.G., Schremser, D., Karagiannis, D.: A generic approach for the semantic annotation of conceptual models using a service-oriented architecture. Int. J. Knowl. Manag. 9(1), 76–88 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gruber, T.R.: A translation approach to portable ontology specifications. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. Knowl. Acquis. 5(2), 199–220 (1993)Google Scholar
  8. Guarino, N.: Formal ontology and information systems. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference (FOIS’98), Trento, Italy, 6–8 June 1998Google Scholar
  9. Hoang, H.H., Tran, P.-C.T., Le, T.M.: State of the Art of Semantic Business Process Management: An Investigation on Approaches for Business-to-Business Integration. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5991, pp. 154–165. Springer, Berlin (2010)Google Scholar
  10. Kalogeraki, E.-M., Panayiotopoulos, T., Apostolou, D.: Semantic queries in BPMN 2.0: a contemporary method for information retrieval. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications (IISA 2015), Corfu 6–8 July 2015, (in press)Google Scholar
  11. Kalogeraki, E.-M., Theocharis, S., Apostolou, D., Tsihrintzis, G., Panayiotopoulos, T.: Semantic concepts in BPMN 2.0. In: IISA 2014—5th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications, vol. 6878791, pp. 204–209 (2014)Google Scholar
  12. Kő, A., Ternai, K.: A development method for ontology based business processes. In: Cunningham, P., Cunningham, M. (eds.) eChallenges e-2011 Conference Proceedings of IIMC International Information Management Corporation Ltd 2011. ISBN 978-1-905824-27-4Google Scholar
  13. Kogalovsky, M.R., Kalinichenko, L.A.: Conceptual and ontological modeling in information systems. Program. Comput. Soft. 35(5), 241–256 (2009)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. Ma, S., Tian, L.: Ontology-based semantic retrieval for mechanical design knowledge. Int. J. Comput. Integr. Manuf. 28(2), 226–238 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Möller, R., Haarslev, V., Neumann B.: Semantics-based information retrieval. Available from Ralf Möller at since 01 Dec 2012. (1998)
  16. Natschläger, C.: Towards a BPMN 2.0 ontology. Lect. Notes Bus. Inf. Process. 95, 1–15 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Object Management Group.: Business process model and notation (BPMN), version 2.0.2, 2013. as it is 25 May 2015
  18. Robak, S., Franczyk, B., Robak, M.: Applying linked data concepts in BPM. In: IEEE, 2012 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, FedCSIS 2012, vol. 6354386, pp. 1105–1110 (2012)Google Scholar
  19. Rospocher, M., Ghidini, C., Serafini, L.: An ontology for the business process modelling notation. In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, vol. 267, pp. 133–146 (2014)Google Scholar
  20. Sánchez, J.M., Cavero, J.M., Marcos, E.: The concepts of model in information systems engineering: a proposal for an ontology of models. Knowl. Eng. Rev. 24(1), 5–21 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sanfilippo, E.M., Borgo, S., Masolo, C.: Events and activities: is there an ontology behind BPMN?. In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, vol. 267, pp. 147–156 (2014)Google Scholar
  22. Sirin, E., Parsia, B., Grau, B.C., Kalyanpur, A., Katz, Y.: Pellet: a practical OWL-DL reasoner. Web Seman. 5(2), 51–53 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Taghieh, S., Taghieh, M.B.: Knowledge management, with the emphasis on the key success factors and the cycle of active knowledge management system. Adv. Environ. Biol. 7(10), 2789–2794 (2013)Google Scholar
  24. Taylor, C.: Reunifying Knowledge and Business Process Management. BPTrends, Feb 2012Google Scholar
  25. Thalheim, B.: The science and art of conceptual modeling. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 7600 LNCS, pp. 76–105 (2012)Google Scholar
  26. Thomas, O., Fellmann, M.: Semantic process modeling—design and implementation of an ontology-based representation of business processes. Bus. Inf. Syst. Eng. 51(6), 506–518 (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eleni-Maria Kalogeraki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dimitris Apostolou
    • 1
  • Themis Panayiotopoulos
    • 1
  • George Tsihrintzis
    • 1
  • Stamatios Theocharis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of InformaticsUniversity of PiraeusPiraeusGreece

Personalised recommendations