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Systemmodelle: Sensorische und motorische Prozesse beim episodischen Erinnern

  • Johannes Engelkamp
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Kapitel 9: Zusammenfassung

Behaltensleistungen für Episoden werden durch sensorische Merkmale ebenso beeinflusst wie durch die Beteiligung motorischer Prozesse. So ist z. B. gezeigt worden, dass im Vergleich zu Wörtern Bilder besser behalten werden. Dieser Bildüberlegenheitseffekt beruht auf der Enkodierung von konkreten Bildmerkmalen wie Form, Größe, Farbe, Perspektive usw., aufgrund derer Bilder besser zu unterscheiden sind als Wörter. Ebenso ist gezeigt worden, dass einfache Handlungsphrasen wie „das Glas abtrocknen“ besser behalten werden, wenn sie nicht nur gehört oder gesehen, sondern selbst ausgeführt werden. Dieser Tu-Effekt beruht auf der Enkodierung von motorischen Merkmalen der ausgeführten Bewegungen. Sensorische wie motorische Merkmale beeinflussen auch implizite Behaltenstests. Das verweist darauf, dass ihre Enkodierung automatisch auch ohne gezielte Behaltensintention erfolgt. Es wird ein multimodales Gedächtnismodell diskutiert, das in der Lage ist, die berichteten Befunde integrativ zu erklären.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johannes Engelkamp
    • 1
  1. 1.SaarbrückenDeutschland

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