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Groundwater is the subsurface water in soil pore spaces or in the fractures of rock formations. As the component of soil and rock mass, it plays important role on the engineering behaviors of earth materials (soils or rocks), and it is also an essential part of engineering environment. Its geological occurrence and seepage flow influence the strength, deformation, stability, and durability of structures. Therefore, groundwater is a significant element in geotechnical engineering or foundation engineering area. In this regard, any soil or rock engineering evaluation without considering groundwater is not available and comprehensive. In China, during the discipline development and project practice in geotechnical engineering, the knowledge of groundwater is far behind the international developed level.