Conclusions and Outlook
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An investigation with flow heterogeneity as the principal line was conducted on the formation and evolution of mesoscale structure in heterogeneous gas–solid two-phase fluidization and its effects on drag force. A mesoscale structure mathematical model was established, and the Energy Minimization Multi-scale (EMMS) theory was refined. An accurate heterogeneous drag model with certain condition universality was developed and proved to have the ability to simulate heterogeneous flow processes under various conditions accurately.