Advertisement

Gloves

  • Kristiina Aalto-KorteEmail author
Chapter
  • 854 Downloads

Abstract

Contact allergy to protective gloves is common, especially in occupational settings, and should be considered in all cases of patients with hand dermatitis. Gloves induce contact allergy by two mechanisms: immediate and delayed contact allergy. Immediate allergy usually manifests as contact urticaria and is mostly due to the proteins in natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves. Leather gloves are one significant cause of allergic contact dermatitis due to chromium, whereas rubber gloves induce contact allergy due to various rubber additives: thiurams, dithiocarbamates and benzothiazoles are the main sensitizers in rubber. NRL contact urticaria is diagnosed by prick testing or determination of specific IgE in the serum. The diagnosis of delayed glove allergy, however, requires patch testing. The European baseline series contains the main sensitizers. Common additional tests are using pieces of the suspected glove material and aimed testing with a rubber additive series. Plastic glove allergy is not extremely rare, and most reported cases have been due to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gloves. The diagnosis of plastic glove allergy is difficult. Commercial patch test preparations only rarely reveal the allergen, and the diagnosis usually requires patch testing with the individual components of the gloves.

Keywords

Natural rubber Nitrile Leather Chromium Thiuram Dithiocarbamate Benzothiazole Polyvinyl chloride Contact urticaria Prick test Specific IgE 

References

  1. 1.
    Estlander T, Jolanki R. Allergic contact dermatitis from rubber and plastic gloves. In: Boman A, Estlander T, Wahlberg JE, Maibach HI, editors. Protective gloves for occupational use. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2005. p. 127–44.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Flores SK, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Maibach HI. Disadvantages of gloves. In: Rustemayer T, Elsner P, John SM, Maibach HI, editors. Kanerva’s occupational dermatology. Berlin: Springer; 2012. p. 1923–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caroe C, Andersen KE, Thyssen JP, Mortz CG. Fluctuations in the prevalence of chromate allergy in Denmark and exposure to chrome-tanned leather. Contact Dermatitis. 2010;63:340–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allmers H, Schmengler J, John SM. Decreasing incidence of occupational contact urticaria caused by natural rubber latex allergy in German health care workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114:347–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rose RF, Lyons P, Horne H, Mark WS. A review of the materials and allergens in protective gloves. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;61:129–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Van Kampen V, De Blay F, Folletti I, Kobierski P, Moscato G, Olivieri M, Quirce S, Sastre J, Walusiak-Skorupa J, Kotschy-Lang N, Musken H, Mahler V, Schliemann S, Ochmann U, Sultz J, Worm M, Sander I, Zahradnik E, Bruning T, Merget R, Raulf-Heimsoth M. Evaluation of commercial skin prick test solutions for selected occupational allergens. Allergy. 2013;68:651–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hansson C, Ponten A, Svedman C, Bergendorff O. Reaction profile in patch testing with allergens formed during vulcanization of rubber. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;70:300–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ponten A, Hamnerius N, Bruze M, Hansson C, Persson C, Svedman C, Thorneby Andersson K, Bergendorff O. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by sterile non-latex protective gloves: clinical investigation and chemical analyses. Contact Dermatitis. 2013;68:103–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baeck M, Cawet B, Tennstedt D, Goossens A. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by latex (natural rubber)-free gloves in healthcare workers. Contact Dermatitis. 2013;68:54–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bruze M, Trulsson L, Bendsöe N. Patch testing with ultra-sonic bath extracts. Am J Contact Dermatitis. 1992;3:133–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aalto-Korte K, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Allergic contact dermatitis from bisphenol A in PVC gloves. Contact Dermatitis. 2003;49:202–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aalto-Korte K, Alanko K, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Jolanki R. Antimicrobial allergy from polyvinyl chloride gloves. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:1326–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crepy MN, Langlois E, Melin S, Descatha A, Bensefa-Colas L, Jonathan AM, Ameille J. Tricresyl phosphate in polyvinylchloride gloves: a new allergen. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;70:325–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ponten A. Formaldehyde in reusable protective gloves. Contact Dermatitis. 2006;54:268–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health and Work AbilityFinnish Institute of Occupational HealthHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations