Advertisement

Preservatives

  • Klaus Ejner AndersenEmail author
  • Kristian Fredløv Mose
Chapter

Abstract

Preservatives are chemical substances used in consumer products and in the industry to prevent microbial growth and help prolong the shelf-life of consumer products. However, there is no ideal preservative that only exhibits positive effects (e.g. effective at low concentrations, high solubility, compatible with other ingredients, biodegradable and non-toxic). Preservatives are by nature reactive substances and can induce allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, a number of preservatives are included in the European patch test baseline series. The current baseline series include methylchloro- and methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI), methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN), formaldehyde, quaternium-15 and paraben mixture. In recent years, contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone (MI) has reached epidemic proportions in Europe. In the past, a high frequency of contact allergy to MDBGN led the EU authorities to ban the use of this preservative in cosmetic products. Further, an EU regulation in 2004 ordered all preservatives listed on the ingredient label of consumer products, as cosmetics, detergents and household products. Also, a mandatory use of a uniform nomenclature on labels was introduced. This has greatly improved the physician’s ability to determine the relevance of a possible contact allergy to preservatives and helps the patients to avoid further exposure. Nevertheless, contact allergy to preservatives continues to be a dermatological problem, because preservative effects are needed in the majority of today’s consumer products. Alternative preservatives replace the old ones and as a result new epidemics may arise.

Keywords

Patch test concentrations Patch test suppliers Consumer products Uses and exposure EU regulations Methylisothiazolinone (MI) Methylchloro- and methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) Methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) Formaldehyde Formaldehyde releasers Quaternium-15 Parabens 

References

  1. 1.
    Andersen KE, White IR, Goossens A. Allergens from the standard series. In: Johansen JD, Frosch PJ, Lepoittevin JP, editors. Contact dermatitis. 5th ed. Berlin: Springer; 2011. p. 545–5902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andersen KE, Rycroft RJ. Recommended patch test concentrations for preservatives, biocides and antimicrobials. Contact Dermatitis. 1991;25(1):1–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Flyvholm MA. Preservatives in registered chemical products. Contact Dermatitis. 2005;53(1):27–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mose AP, Lundov MD, Zachariae C, Menne T, Veien NK, Laurberg G, et al. Occupational contact dermatitis in painters: an analysis of patch test data from the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. Contact Dermatitis. 2012;67(5):293–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bruze M, Isaksson M, Gruvberger B, Andersen KE, Goncalo M, Goossens A, et al. Patch testing with methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone 200 ppm aq. detects significantly more contact allergy than 100 ppm. A multicentre study within the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;71(1):31–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lundov MD, Krongaard T, Menne TL, Johansen JD. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: a review. Br J Dermatol. 2011;165(6):1178–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schnuch A, Lessmann H, Geier J, Uter W. Contact allergy to preservatives. Analysis of IVDK data 1996–2009. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164(6):1316–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lundov MD, Opstrup MS, Johansen JD. Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy–growing epidemic. Contact Dermatitis. 2013;69(5):271–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Frosch PJ, Lahti A, Hannuksela M, Andersen KE, Wilkinson JD, Shaw S, et al. Chloromethylisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone (CMI/MI) use test with a shampoo on patch-test-positive subjects. Results of a multicentre double-blind crossover trial. Contact Dermatitis. 1995;32(4):210–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mose AP, Frost S, Ohlund U, Andersen KE. Allergic contact dermatitis from octylisothiazolinone. Contact Dermatitis. 2013;69(1):49–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Madsen JT, Andersen KE. Further evidence of the methylisothiazolinone epidemic. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;70(4):246–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McFadden JP, Ross JS, Jones AB, Rycroft RJ, Smith HR, White IR. Increased rate of patch test reactivity to methyldibromo glutaronitrile. Contact Dermatitis. 2000;42(1):54–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gruvberger B, Andersen KE, Brandao FM, Bruynzeel DP, Bruze M, Frosch PJ, et al. Patch testing with methyldibromo glutaronitrile, a multicentre study within the EECDRG. Contact Dermatitis. 2005;52(1):14–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johansen JD, Veien N, Laurberg G, Avnstorp C, Kaaber K, Andersen KE, et al. Decreasing trends in methyldibromo glutaronitrile contact allergy–following regulatory intervention. Contact Dermatitis. 2008;59(1):48–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jensen CD, Johansen JD, Menne T, Andersen KE. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis: an experimental study. Br J Dermatol. 2004;150(1):90–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zachariae C, Hall B, Cupferman S, Andersen KE, Menne T. ROAT: morphology of ROAT on arm, neck and face in formaldehyde and diazolidinyl urea sensitive individuals. Contact Dermatitis. 2006;54(1):21–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Scheman AJ, Carroll PA, Brown KH, Osburn AH. Formaldehyde-related textile allergy: an update. Contact Dermatitis. 1998;38(6):332–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    de Groot A, White IR, Flyvholm MA, Lensen G, Coenraads PJ. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 2. Patch test relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, experimental provocation tests, amount of formaldehyde released, and assessment of risk to consumers allergic to formaldehyde. Contact Dermatitis. 2010;62(1):18–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jong CT, Statham BN, Green CM, King CM, Gawkrodger DJ, Sansom JE, et al. Contact sensitivity to preservatives in the UK, 2004–2005: results of multicentre study. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;57(3):165–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Uter W, Geier J, Land M, Pfahlberg A, Gefeller O, Schnuch A. Another look at seasonal variation in patch test results. A multifactorial analysis of surveillance data of the IVDK. Information Network of Departments of Dermatology. Contact Dermatitis. 2001;44(3):146–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Flyvholm MA, Hall BM, Agner T, Tiedemann E, Greenhill P, Vanderveken W, et al. Threshold for occluded formaldehyde patch test in formaldehyde-sensitive patients. Relationship to repeated open application test with a product containing formaldehyde releaser. Contact Dermatitis. 1997;36(1):26–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Noiesen E, Munk MD, Larsen K, Johansen JD, Agner T. Difficulties in avoiding exposure to allergens in cosmetics. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;57(2):105–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Andersen KE, Maibach HI. Multiple application delayed onset contact urticaria: possible relation to certain unusual formalin and textile reactions? Contact Dermatitis. 1984;10(4):227–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    de Groot AC, Flyvholm MA, Lensen G, Menne T, Coenraads PJ. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;61(2):63–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rastogi SC, Schouten A, De Kruijf N, Weijland JW. Contents of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl- and benzylparaben in cosmetic products. Contact Dermatitis. 1995;32(1):28–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bledzka D, Gromadzinska J, Wasowicz W. Parabens. From environmental studies to human health. Environ Int. 2014;67:27–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Menne T, Hjorth N. Routine patch testing with paraben esters. Contact Dermatitis. 1988;19(3):189–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fisher AA. The paraben paradoxes. Cutis. 1973;12(6):830–2.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Andersen KE. Ethylhexylglycerin-a contact allergen in cosmetic products. Dermatitis. 2012;23(6):291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Ejner Andersen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kristian Fredløv Mose
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and Allergy CentreOdense University Hospital, University of Southern DenmarkOdense CDenmark

Personalised recommendations