Advertisement

Metals

  • Anneli JulanderEmail author
Chapter
  • 847 Downloads

Abstract

Contact dermatitis to metals is still frequent in both Europe and North America and in other parts of the world. Most frequent is allergy to nickel, with prevalence numbers up to 17–25 % in dermatitis patients. Nickel allergy is predominantly affecting women. Chromium allergy is still common among construction and tannery workers, although it seems to be increasing in the general population among women. Cobalt allergy is still very prominent among hard metal workers and is also seen in the general population. Palladium allergy is closely related to nickel allergy due to cross-reactivity, and therefore it is difficult to evaluate the prevalence of solitary palladium allergy. In this chapter a brief description about metal sources and exposures is given. It focuses on new knowledge about surface composition, skin doses of metal and a quick guide to test the patients. The chapter also briefly gives some suggestion of what to tell the patients, and how to use spot tests and screening tools, for identifying nickel and cobalt in everyday items that patients handle at work or during their free time.

Keywords

Contact allergy Metals Skin dose Surface area Nickel Cobalt Chromium Palladium Sources of exposure 

Abbreviations

Au

Gold

Co

Cobalt

Cr

Chromium

DMG

Dimethylglyoxime

Ni

Nickel

Pd

Palladium

Pet.

Petrolatum

References

  1. 1.
    Lidén C, Menné T, Burrows D. Nickel-containing alloys and platings and their ability to cause dermatitis. Br J Dermatol. 1996;134:193–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Julander A, Midander K, Herting G, Thyssen JP, White IR, Odnevall Wallinder I, et al. New UK nickel-plated steel coins constitute an increased allergy and eczema risk. Contact Dermatitis. 2013;68(6):323–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Midander K, Kettelarij JA, Julander A, Lidén C. Nickel release from white gold. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;71:109–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fischer LA, Menné T, Johansen JD. Dose per unit area – a study of elicitation of nickel allergy. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;56(5):255–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jensen P, Thyssen JP, Johansen JD, Skare L, Lidén C, Menné T. Occupational hand eczema caused by nickel and evaluated by quantitative exposure assessment. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;64(1):32–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lidén C, Bruze M, Thyssen JP, Menné T. Metals. In: Johansen JD, Frosch PJ, Lepoittevin J, editors. Contact dermatitis. 5th ed. Berlin: Springer; 2011. p. 643–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sethi G, Belum B, Burrows D, Maibach HI, Hostynek J. Chromium. In: Rustemeyer T, Elsner P, John S, Maibach HI, editors. Kanerva’s occupational dermatology. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer; 2012. p. 495–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lidén C, Julander A. Cobalt. In: Rustemeyer T, Elsner P, John S, Maibach H, editors. Kanerva’s occupational dermatology. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer; 2012. p. 505–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Muris J, Kleverlaan CJ, Fielzer AJ, Rustenmeyer T. Sodium tetrachloropalladate (Na2[PdCl4]) as an improved test salt for palladium allergy patch testing. Contact Dermatitis. 2008;58(1):42–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hindsén M, Bruze M, Christensen OB. Individual variation in nickel patch test reactivity. Am J Contact Dermatitis. 1999;10(2):62–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Garg S, Thyssen JP, Uter W, Schnuch A, Johansen JD, Menné T, et al. Nickel allergy following European Union regulation in Denmark, Germany, Italy and the U.K. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169:854–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Uter W, Ramsch C, Aberer W, Ayala F, Balato A, Beliauskiene A, et al. The European baseline series in 10 European countries, 2005/2006–results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA). Contact Dermatitis. 2009;61(1):31–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thyssen JP, Linneberg A, Menné T, Nielsen NH, Johansen JD. Contact allergy to allergens of the TRUE-test (panels 1 and 2) has decreased modestly in the general population. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161(5):1124–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mortz CG, Lauritsen JM, Bindslev-Jensen C, Andersen KE. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS). Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82(5):359–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bordel-Gomez MT, Miranda-Romero A, Castrodeza-Sanz J. Isolated and concurrent prevalence of sensitization to transition metals in a Spanish population. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22(12):1452–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Warshaw EM, Belsito DV, Taylor JS, Sasseville D, DeKoven JG, Zirwas MJ, et al. North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch test results: 2009 to 2010. Dermatitis. 2013;24(2):50–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lindberg M, Edman B, Fischer T, Stenberg B. Time trends in Swedish patch test data from 1992 to 2000. A multi-centre study based on age- and sex-adjusted results of the Swedish standard series. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;56(4):205–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thyssen JP, Jensen P, Carlsen BC, Engkilde K, Menné T, Johansen JD. The prevalence of chromium allergy in Denmark is currently increasing as a result of leather exposure. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161(6):1288–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Larese Filon F, Uderzo D, Bagnato E. Sensitization to palladium chloride: a 10-year evaluation. Am J Contact Dermatitis. 2003;14(2):78–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cristaudo A, Bordignon V, Petrucci F, Caimi S, De Rocco M, Picardo M, et al. Release of palladium from biomechanical prosthesis in body fluids can induce or support PD-specific INF-gamma T cell responses and the clinical setting of palladium hypersensitivity. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009;22(3):605–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unit of Occupational and Environmental DermatologyKarolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental MedicineStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations