Advertisement

Educating Destination Communities for Sustainability in Tourism

  • Gianna MoscardoEmail author
  • Laurie Murphy
Part of the CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance book series (CSEG)

Abstract

The people who live and work in destination communities are crucial, but often neglected, stakeholders in tourism. The literature on community involvement in tourism management and research into tourism impacts on destinations indicates that the involvement of destination communities in tourism governance is a key element of sustainability. This chapter will focus on residents of destination communities and outline the educational elements required to support more effective community based governance of tourism. It will also explore the ways in which tourism governance experiences could be used to support Education for Sustainability (EfS) in general and community action for sustainability beyond tourism.

Keywords

Community involvement Stakeholder Public participation Sustainable tourism Governance 

References

  1. Andereck, K. L., & Nyaupane, G. P. (2010). Exploring the nature of tourism and quality of life perceptions among residents. Journal of Travel Research, 50(3), 248–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of planners, 35(4), 216–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aspinall, A., Cukier, J., & Doberstein, B. (2011). Quality of life assessments and social sustainability: Ski tourism development in Invermere, British Columbia. Journal Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, 13(2), 179–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2010). National regional profile: Magnetic Island. Available Online: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@nrp.nsf/781eb7868cee03e9ca2571800082bece/2a3e7368b29b7557ca2577d50011bdaa!OpenDocument. Accessed 11 Nov 2013.
  5. Australian Department of Environment and Heritage. (2004). Steps to sustainable tourism. http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/9c8f5084-3565-4f26-8801-77da3458f497/files/steps.pdf. Accessed 5 Feb 2015.
  6. Barwais, F. (2011). Definitions of wellbeing, Quality of life and wellness. National Wellness Institute of Australia. http://nwia.idwelness.org/2011/02/28/definitions-of-wellbeing-quality-of-life-and-wellness/. Accessed 12 Feb 2104.
  7. Benckendorff, P. (2008). Envisioning sustainable tourism futures: An evaluation of the futures wheel method. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 8(1), 25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benckendorff, P., Edwards, D., Jurowski, C., Liburd, J. J., Miller, G., & Moscardo, G. (2009). Exploring the future of tourism and quality of life. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 9(2), 171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boland, A., & Zhu, J. (2012). Public participation in China’s green communities: Mobilizing memories and structuring incentives. Geoforum, 43(1), 147–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brabham, D. C. (2012). The effectiveness of crowdsourcing public participation in a planning context. First Monday, 17(12). http://journals.uic.edu/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/4225. Accessed 11 Nov 2013.
  11. Brager, G., & Specht, H. (1973). Community organizing. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bramwell, B., & Lane, B. (2011). Critical research on the governance of tourism and sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(4-5), 411–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruce, A., Heslop, S., Macgill, I., & Watt, M. (2013). Magnetic Island and Townsville Solar City. Canberra: Australian Renewable Energy Agency.Google Scholar
  14. Byrd, E. T. (2007). Stakeholders in sustainable tourism development and their roles: Applying stakeholder theory to sustainable tourism development. Tourism Review, 62(2), 6–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Caribbean Tourism Organization. (n.d). Competing with the best: Good practices in tourism awareness programmes. http://www.onecaribbean.org/content/files/GoodPracticestourismawareness%282%29.pdf. Accessed 5 Feb 2015.
  16. Chakravarty, I. (2003). Marine ecotourism and regional development: A case study of the proposed Marine Park at Malvan, Maharashtra, India. In B. Garrod & J. Wilson (Eds.), Marine ecotourism: Issues and experiences (pp. 177–197). Clevedon: Channelview.Google Scholar
  17. Citiwater Townsville. (2002). Magnetic Island water recycling. Townsville: Citiwater.Google Scholar
  18. Clarke, M., Islam, S. M. N., & Paech, S. (2006). Measuring Australia’s well-being using hierarchical needs. Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 933–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cole, S. (2005). Community education. In D. Airey & J. Tribe (Eds.), An international handbook of tourism education (pp. 395–407). Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cole, S. (2006a). Cultural tourism, community participation and empowerment. In M. Smith & M. Robinson (Eds.), Cultural tourism in a changing world: Politics, participation and (re) presentation (pp. 89–103). Clevedon: Channelview.Google Scholar
  21. Cole, S. (2006b). Information and empowerment: The keys to achieving sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(6), 629–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Conrad, E., Cassar, L. F., Christie, M., & Fazey, I. (2011). Hearing but not listening? A participatory assessment of public participation in planning. Environment and Planning-Part C, 29(5), 761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Fyall, A., Gilbert, D., & Wanhill, S. (2008). Tourism: Principles and practice (4th ed.). Essex: Pearson.Google Scholar
  24. Costanza, R., Fisher, B., Ali, S., Beer, C., Bond, L., Boumans, R., et al. (2007). Quality of life: An approach integrating opportunities, human needs, and subjective well-being. Ecological Economics, 61, 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cotton, D., & Winter, J. (2010). ‘It’s not just bits of paper and light bulbs’: A review of sustainability pedagogies and their potential for use in higher education. In P. Jones, D. Selby, & S. Sterling (Eds.), Sustainability education: Perspectives and practice across higher education (pp. 39–54). Abingdon: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  26. Department of National Parks, Recreation, Sport and Racing. (2011). About Magnetic Island. Available online: http://www.nprsr.qld.gov.au/parks/magnetic-island/about.html. Accessed 11 Nov 2013.
  27. Dredge, D., & Moore, S. (1992). A methodology for the integration of tourism in town planning. Journal of Tourism Studies, 3(1), 8–21.Google Scholar
  28. Emory, M., & Flora, C. B. (2006). Spiraling-up: Mapping community transformation with community capitals framework. Community Development, 37, 19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Empower-Ed. (2004). Buffalo City municipality tourism master plan: Phase 9, 10 and 12. http://www.buffalocity.gov.za/municipality/keydocs/tourism_masterplan/phase10_12/phase9_10_12.pdf. Accessed 5 Feb 2015.
  30. Evely, A. C., Pinard, M., Reed, M. S., & Fazey, I. (2011). High levels of participation in conservation projects enhance learning. Conservation Letters, 4(2), 116–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Farina, C. R., Miller, P., Newhart, M. J., Cardie, C., Cosley, D., & Vernon, R. (2011). Rulemaking in 140 characters or less: Social networking and public participation in rulemaking. Pace Law Review, 31, 382–463.Google Scholar
  32. Gartner, W. C. (1996). Tourism development: Principles, processes, and policies. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  33. Hall, C. M. (2011). Policy learning and policy failure in sustainable tourism governance: From first-and second-order to third-order change? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(4-5), 649–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hamilton, K., & Alexander, M. (2013). Organic community tourism: A cocreated approach. Annals of Tourism Research, 42, 169–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harrington, J. T. (2004). Being here: Heritage, belonging and place making. PhD Thesis, James Cook University, Townsville.Google Scholar
  36. Haywood, K. M. (1988). Responsible and responsive tourism planning in the community. Tourism Management, 9(2), 105–118.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hernández, J. M., & León, C. J. (2007). The interactions between natural and physical capitals in the tourist lifecycle model. Ecological Economics, 62(1), 184–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heywood, P. (1990). Social justice and planning for the public interest. Urban Policy and Research, 8(2), 60–68.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hung, K., Sirakaya-Turk, E., & Ingram, L. J. (2011). Testing the efficacy of an integrative model for community participation. Journal of Travel Research, 50(3), 276–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management. (2011). Evaluation of social awareness campaign for good behaviour towards tourists. http://tourism.gov.in/writereaddata/CMSPagePicture/file/marketresearch/studyreports/SocialAwarenessReport.pdf. Accessed 5 Feb 2015.
  41. Keogh, B. (1990). Public participation in community tourism planning. Annals of Tourism Research, 17(3), 449–465.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Laessoe, T. (2010). Education for sustainable development, participation and socio-cultural change. Environmental Education Research, 6(1), 39–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lehtonen, M. (2004). The environmental-social interface of sustainable development: Capabilities, social capital, institutions. Ecological Economics, 49, 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lyon, L., & Driskell, R. (2012). The community in urban society (2nd ed.). Long Grove: Waveland Press.Google Scholar
  45. Macbeth, J., Carson, K., & Northcote, J. (2004). Social capital, tourism and regional development: SPCC as a basis for innovation and sustainability. Current Issues in Tourism, 7(6), 502–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mackelworth, P. C., & Carić, H. (2010). Gatekeepers of island communities: Exploring the pillars of sustainable development. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 12(4), 463–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Malkina-Pykh, I. G., & Pykh, Y. A. (2008). Quality-of-life indicators at different scales: Theoretical background. Ecological Indicators, 8, 854–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Marzuki, A., & Hay, I. (2013). Towards a public participation framework in tourism planning. Tourism Planning & Development, 10(4), 494–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Matarrita-Cascante, D., Brennan, M. A., & Luloff, A. E. (2010). Community agency and sustainable tourism development: The case of La Fortuna, Costa Rica. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(6), 735–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McGehee, N. G., Lee, S., O’Bannon, T., & Perdue, R. (2010). Tourism-related social capital and its relationship with other forms of capital: An exploratory study. Journal of Travel Research, 49, 486–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Moscardo, G. (2008a). Community capacity building—An emerging challenge for tourism development. In G. Moscardo (Ed.), Building community capacity for tourism (pp. 1–15). Wallingford: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Moscardo, G. (2008b). Sustainable tourism innovation: Challenging basic assumptions. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 8(1), 4–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Moscardo, G. (2009). Tourism and quality of life: Towards a more critical approach. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 9, 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moscardo, G. (2011a). The role of knowledge in good governance for tourism. In E. Laws, H. Richins, J. Agrusa, & N. Scott (Eds.), Tourist destination governance (pp. 67–80). Wallingford: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moscardo, G. (2011b). Exploring social representations of tourism planning: Issues for governance. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(4-5), 423–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moscardo, G. (2012). Building social capital to enhance the quality of life of destination residents. In M. Uysal, R. Perdue, & M. J. Sirgy (Eds.), Handbook of tourism and quality of life research (pp. 403–422). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moscardo, G. (2014). Tourism and community leadership in rural regions: Linking mobility, entrepreneurship, tourism development and community well-being. Tourism Planning & Development, 111(3), 1–17.Google Scholar
  58. Moscardo, G., Konovalov, E., Murphy, L., & McGehee, N. (2013). Mobilities, community wellbeing and sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(4), 532–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moscardo, G., & Murphy, L. (2013). There’s no such thing as sustainable tourism: Reconceptualizing tourism as a tool for sustainability. Sustainability, 6(1), 2538–2561.Google Scholar
  60. Mountain Institute. (2000). Community based tourism for conservation and development: A resource kit. http://mountain.org/sites/default/files/attachments/community_based_tourism_for_conservation_and_development.pdf. Accessed 5 Feb 2015.
  61. Moyle, B. B., Croy, G., & Weiler, B. (2010). Community perceptions of tourism: Bruny and Magnetic Islands, Australia. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 15(3), 353–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Murphy, P. E. (2013). Tourism: A community approach (Vol. 4). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Nunkoo, R., & Ramkissoon, H. (2012). Power, trust, social exchange and community support. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 997–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nunkoo, R., & Smith, S. L. (2013). Political economy of tourism: Trust in government actors, political support, and their determinants. Tourism Management, 36, 120–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Okazaki, E. (2008). A community-based tourism model: Its conception and use. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(5), 511–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Panos Institute. (n.d.). Improving training and public awareness on Caribbean coastal tourism. http://www.cep.unep.org/issues/panos.PDF. Accessed 5 Feb 2015.
  67. Potts, T. (2010). The natural advantage of regions: Linking sustainability, innovation, and regional development in Australia. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(8), 713–725.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Powell, R., Bailey, R., Wade, A., & Tunstall, J. (2014). Reaching out to local communities in a discussion of sustainable development. Bridges, 10. doi:9780784412688-021.Google Scholar
  69. Pretty, J. N. (1995). Participatory learning for sustainable agriculture. World Development, 23(8), 1247–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rice, R. E., & Atkin, C. K. (2013). Public communication campaigns (4th ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  71. Roseland, M. (2012). Toward sustainable communities: Solutions for citizens and their governments. Vancouver: New Society.Google Scholar
  72. Rowe, D., & Johnston, L. F. (2013). Learning outcomes: An international comparison of countries and declarations. In L. F. Johnston (Ed.), Higher education for sustainability (pp. 45–59). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Ruhanen, L. (2004). Strategic planning for local tourism destinations: An analysis of tourism plans. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 1(3), 239–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Saarinen, J. (2013). Critical sustainability: Setting the limits to growth and responsibility in tourism. Sustainability, 6(1), 1–17.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sammy, J. (2008). Examples of effective techniques for enhancing community understanding of tourism. In G. Moscardo (Ed.), Building community capacity for tourism development (pp. 75–85). Wallingford: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sarkissian, W., Hofer, N., Shore, Y., Vajda, S., & Wilkinson, C. (2008). Kitchen table sustainability. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  77. Shakeela, A., Breakey, N., & Ruhanen, L. (2012). Tourism education’s roles in sustainable tourism development: A case study of SIDS introduction. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 24(1), 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Snowball, J. D., & Willis, K. G. (2006). Building cultural capital: Transforming the South African national arts festival. South African Journal of Economics, 74(1), 20–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stronza, A. (2008). Partnerships for tourism development. In G. Moscardo (Ed.), Building community capacity for tourism development (pp. 101–115). Wallingford: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Temenos, C., & McCann, E. (2012). The local politics of policy mobility: Learning, persuasion, and the production of a municipal sustainability fix. Environment and Planning-Part A, 44(6), 1389–1406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tilbury, D. (2004). Rising to the challenge: Education for sustainability in Australia. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 20(2), 103–114.Google Scholar
  82. Tilbury, D. (2013). Another world is desirable: A global rebooting of higher education for sustainable development. In S. Sterling, L. Maxey, & H. Luna (Eds.), The sustainable university (pp. 71–85). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  83. Tilbury, D., & Wortman, D. (2004). Engaging people in sustainability. Gland: IUCN.Google Scholar
  84. Timothy, D. J. (2000). Building community awareness of tourism in a developing country destination. Tourism Recreation Research, 25(2), 111–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Timothy, D. J., & Tosun, C. (2003). Appropriate planning for tourism in destination communities: Participation, incremental growth and collaboration. In S. Singh, D. J. Timothy, & R. K. Dowling (Eds.), Tourism in destination communities (pp. 181–204). Wallingford: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tosun, C. (2000). Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing countries. Tourism Management, 21(6), 613–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tourism Queensland. (2007). Destination management plan for tourism in Townsville, North Queensland, 2007-2010. Brisbane: Tourism Queensland.Google Scholar
  88. UNDP. (2013). Human development report. The rise of the South: Human progress in a diverse world. http://www.undp.org/content/dam/philippines/docs/HDR/HDR2013%20Report%20English.pdf. Accessed 12 Feb 2014.
  89. Upchurch, R. S., & Teivane, U. (2000). Resident perceptions of tourism development in Riga, Latvia. Tourism Management, 21(5), 499–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. USAID. (2009). Tourism awareness plan 2010-2011. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADR524.pdf. Accessed 5 Feb 2015.
  91. Valentine, P. (1989). Community response to tourism proposals on Magnetic Island. Urban Policy and Research, 7(2), 83–85.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. van Trijp, H. C. M. (2014). Encouraging sustainable behavior: Psychology and the environment. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  93. Vermuri, A. W., & Costanza, R. (2006). The role of human, social, built and natural capital in explaining life satisfaction at the country level: Toward a national well-being index. Ecological Economics, 58, 119–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wade, R. (2013). Promoting sustainable communities locally and globally. In S. Sterling, L. Maxey, & H. Luna (Eds.), The sustainable university (pp. 89–151). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  95. Wang, X., & Bryer, T. A. (2013). Assessing the costs of public participation: A case study of two online participation mechanisms. American Review of Public Administration, 43(2), 179–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wesselink, A., Paavola, J., Fritsch, O., & Renn, O. (2011). Rationales for public participation in environmental policy and governance: Practitioners’ perspectives. Environment and Planning-Part A, 43(11), 2688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wiseman, J., Williamson, L., & Fritze, J. (2010). Community engagement and climate change: Learning from recent Australian experience. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 2(2), 134–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. WTO. (2007). A practical guide to destination management. Madrid: WTO.Google Scholar
  99. Zapata, M. J., Hall, C. M., Lindo, P., & Vanderschaeghe, M. (2011). Can community-based tourism contribute to development and poverty alleviation? Lessons from Nicaragua. Current Issues in Tourism, 14(8), 725–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.James Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations