Advertisement

Abstract

This chapter argues that ethics provides an alternative way in which to better understand an act upon tourism industry dilemmas (as an alternative to the over-reliance on the impacts literature). There is a rich foundation of ethics knowledge emerging in the tourism literature, and this foundation continues to expand at a modest rate. In an effort to present this knowledge in an organised manner, six main sections have been developed: (1) foundations and theories of ethics and tourism; (2) applied ethics and tourism; (3) types of tourism and ethics; (4) ethics in tourism education and research; (5) sustainability ethics; and (6) tourism and animal ethics. The chapter concludes by suggesting that there is often a disconnect between theory and practice when it comes to ethics. This disconnect makes it especially important for educators to adopt moral theory in the curriculum in developing the proper character for learners who may later become practitioners.

Keywords

Applied ethics Theoretical ethics Impacts Values Animal ethics Sustainability ethics 

References

  1. Ahmed, Z. U., Krohn, F. B., & Heller, V. L. (1994). International tourism ethics as a way to world understanding. Journal of Tourism Studies, 5(2), 36–44.Google Scholar
  2. Baptista, J. A. (2012). The virtuous tourist: Consumption, development, and nongovernmental governance in a Mozambican village. American Anthropologist, 114(4), 639–651.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barber, E. (2011). Case study: Integrating TEFI (Tourism Education Futures Initiative). core values into the undergraduate curriculum. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 11(1), 38–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baum, T. (2001). Education for tourism in a global economy. In S. Wahab & C. Cooper (Eds.), Tourism in the age of globalization (pp. 198–212). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Boluk, K. A. (2011). Fair trade tourism South Africa: Consumer virtue or moral selving? Journal of Ecotourism, 10(3), 235–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, L. (2013). Tourism: A catalyst for existential authenticity. Annals of Tourism Research, 40, 176–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burns, G. L., Macbeth, J., & Moore, S. (2011). Should dingoes die? Principles for engaging ecocentric ethics in wildlife tourism management. Journal of Ecotourism, 10(3), 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butcher, J. (2009). Against ethical tourism. In J. Tribe (Ed.), Philosophical issues in tourism (pp. 244–260). Clevedon: Channel View.Google Scholar
  9. Butler, R. W. (1980). The concept of tourist area cycle of evolution: Implications for management of resources. Canadian Geographer, 24, 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cairns, J., Jr. (2003). A preliminary declaration of sustainability ethics: Making peace with the ultimate bioexecutioner. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics ESEP, 43–48.Google Scholar
  11. Cairns, J., Jr. (2004). Sustainability ethics matter. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics ESEP, 3–6.Google Scholar
  12. Caton, K. (2012). Taking the moral turn in tourism studies. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(4), 1906–1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. D’Amore, L. J. (1993). A code of ethics and guidelines for socially and environmentally responsible tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 31(3), 64–66.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D’Sa, E. (1999). Wanted: Tourists with a social conscious. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11(2/3), 64–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dobson, J. (2011). Towards a utilitarian ethic for marine wildlife tourism. Tourism in Marine Environments, 7(3–4), 213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Doxey, G. V. (1975). A causation theory of visitor-resident irritants; methodology and research inference. In TTRA Conference, San Diego, CA (pp. 195–198).Google Scholar
  17. Duffell, R. (1998). Toward the environment and sustainability ethic in engineering education and practice. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 124(3), 78–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Duffy, R., & Moore, L. (2011). Global regulations and local practices: The politics and governance of animal welfare in elephant tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(4–5), 589–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunfree, T. W., & Black, B. M. (1996). Ethical issues confronting travel agents. Journal of Business Ethics, 15, 207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dyson, P. (2012). Slum tourism: Representing and interpreting ‘reality’ in Dharavi. Mumbai, Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment. doi: 10.1080/14616688.2011.609900.Google Scholar
  21. Eades, J. S. (2009). Moving bodies: The intersections of sex, work, and tourism. In D. C. Wood (Ed.), Economic development, integration, and morality in Asia and the Americas (pp. 225–253). Bingley: Emerald.Google Scholar
  22. Enghagen, L. K. (1990). Ethics in hospitality/tourism education: A survey. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 14, 113.Google Scholar
  23. Fennell, D. A. (2006a). Tourism ethics. Clevedon: Channel View.Google Scholar
  24. Fennell, D. A. (2006b). Evolution in tourism: The theory of reciprocal altruism and tourist-host interactions. Current Issues in Tourism, 9(2), 105–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fennell, D. A. (2008). Responsible tourism: A Kierkegaardian perspective. Tourism Recreation Research, 33(1), 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fennell, D. A. (2009). The nature of pleasure in pleasure travel. Tourism Recreation Research, 34(2), 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fennell, D. A. (2012). Tourism and animal ethics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Fennell, D. A. (2013). The ethics of excellence in tourism research. Journal of Travel Research, 52(4), 417–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fennell, D. A., & Malloy, D. C. (1995). Ethics and ecotourism: A comprehensive ethical model. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 20(3), 163–183.Google Scholar
  30. Fennell, D. A., & Malloy, D. C. (2007). Codes of ethics in tourism: Practice, theory, synthesis. Clevedon: Channel View.Google Scholar
  31. Fennell, D. A., & Nowaczek, A. (2010). Moral and empirical dimensions of human-animal interactions in ecotourism: Deepening an otherwise shallow pool of debate. Journal of Ecotourism, 9(3), 178–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fennell, D. A., & Sheppard, V. (2011). Canada’s 2010 Winter Olympic Legacy: Applying an ethical lens to the post-games’ sled dog cull. Journal of Ecotourism, 10(3), 197–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Garrod, B. (2007). Marine wildlife tourism and ethics. In J. Higham & M. Luck (Eds.), Marine wildlife and tourism management (pp. 257–271). Wallingford: CABI.Google Scholar
  34. Garrod, B., & Fennell, D. A. (2004). A content analysis of whalewatching codes of conduct. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 201–212.Google Scholar
  35. Gibson, C. (2010). Geographies of tourism: (Un)ethical encounters. Progress in Human Geography, 34(4), 521–527.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gretzel, U., Isacsson, A., Matarrita, D., & Wainio, E. (2011). Teaching based on TEFI values: A case study. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 11(1), 94–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harrison, D. (2008). Pro-poor tourism: A critique. Third World Quarterly, 29(5), 851–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heintzman, P. (1995). Leisure, ethics, and the Golden Rule. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 20(3), 203–222.Google Scholar
  39. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2006). More than an “industry”: The forgotten power of tourism as a social force. Tourism Management, 27, 1192–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2008). Justice tourism and alternative globalisation. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(3), 345–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hodgkinson, C. (1983). The philosophy of leadership. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  42. Holcomb, J. L., Upchurch, R. S., & Okumus, F. (2007). Corporate social responsibility: What are top hotel companies reporting? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(6), 461–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Holden, A. (1999). High impact tourism: A suitable component of sustainable policy? The case of downhill skiing development at Cairngorm, Scotland. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7(2), 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Holden, A. (2003). In need of a new environmental ethics for tourism? Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1), 95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Holden, A. (2009). The environment-tourism nexus: Influence of market ethics. Annals of Tourism Research, 36(3), 373–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hudson, S., & Miller, G. (2005). The responsible marketing of tourism: The case of Canadian mountain holidays. Tourism Management, 26(2), 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hudson, S. (2007). To go or not to go? Ethical perspectives on tourism in an ‘outpost of tyranny’. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(4), 385–396.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hughes, P. (2001). Animals, values and tourism—Structural shifts in UK dolphin tourism provision. Tourism Management, 22(4), 321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hultsman, J. (1995). Just tourism: An ethical framework. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(3), 553–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jamal, T. (2004). Virtue ethics and sustainable tourism pedagogy: Phronesis, principles and practice. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 12(6), 530–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Keating, B. (2009). Managing ethics in the tourism supply chain: The case of Chinese travel to Australia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 11, 403–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lea, J. P. (1993). Tourism development ethics in the third world. Annals of Tourism Research, 20, 701–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee, S., & Jamal, T. (2008). Environmental justice and environmental equity in tourism: Missing links to sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7(1), 44–59.Google Scholar
  54. Lovelock, B. (2008). Ethical travel decisions: Travel agents and human rights. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(2), 338–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Macbeth, J. (2005). Towards an ethics platform for tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(4), 962–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Malloy, D. C., & Fennell, D. A. (1998). Codes of ethics and tourism: An exploratory content analysis. Tourism Management, 19(5), 453–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mason, P., & Mowforth, M. (2006). Codes of conduct in tourism. Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2(2), 151–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McKercher, B. (1993). Some fundamental truths about tourism: Understanding tourism’s social and environmental impacts. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1(1), 6–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Meghani, Z. (2011). A robust, particularist ethical assessment of medical tourism. Developing World Bioethics, 11(1), 16–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Minnaert, L., Maitland, R., & Graham, M. (2006). Social tourism and its ethical foundations. Tourism, Culture & Communication, 7(1), 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moscardo, G. (2010). Tourism research ethics: Current considerations and future options. In D. G. Pearce & R. Butler (Eds.), Tourism research: A 20-20 vision (pp. 203–214). Oxford: Goodfellow.Google Scholar
  62. Moscardo, G., & Murphy, L. (2011). Toward values education in tourism: The challenge of measuring the values. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 11(1), 76–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nicholls, A. (2010). Fair trade: Towards an economics of virtue. Journal of Business Ethics, 92, 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O’Halloran, R. (1991). Ethics in hospitality and tourism education: The new managers. Hospitality and Tourism Educator, 3(3), 33.37.Google Scholar
  65. Payne, D., & Dimanche, F. (1996). Towards a code of conduct for the tourism industry: An ethics model. Journal of Business Ethics, 15, 997–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Przeclawski, K. (1996). Deontology of tourism. Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2, 239–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ravinder, R. (2007). Ethical issues in collaboration in the aviation industry. Tourism Review International, 11(2), 175–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Scheyvens, R. (2007). Exploring the tourism-poverty nexus. Current Issues in Tourism, 10(2&3), 231–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Selinger, E. (2009). Ethics and poverty tours. Philosophy & Pubic Policy Quarterly, 29(1/2), 2–7.Google Scholar
  70. Shani, A., & Pizam, A. (2008). Towards an ethical framework for animal-based attractions. New Zealand Management, 20(6), 679–693.Google Scholar
  71. Sheldon, P. J., Fesenmaier, D. R., & Tribe, J. (2011). The Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI), activating change in tourism education. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 11, 2–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Smith, M., & Duffy, R. (2003). The ethics of tourism development. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Speed, C. (2008). Are backpackers ethical tourists? In K. Hannam & I. Atelievic (Eds.), Backpacker tourism: Concepts and profiles (pp. 54–81). Clevedon: Channel View.Google Scholar
  74. Sterling, S. (2001). Sustainable education – Re-visioning learning and change (Schumacher Society Briefing no. 6). Dartington: Green Books.Google Scholar
  75. Stonehouse, B. (1997). Tourism codes of conduct in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5(2), 151–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tribe, J. (2002). The philosophic practitioner. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(2), 338–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Upchurch, R. S., & Ruhland, S. K. (1995). An analysis of ethical work climate and leadership relationship in lodging operations. Journal of Travel Research, 34(2), 36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wearing, S., & Jobberns, C. (2011). Ecotourism and the commodification of wildlife: Animal welfare and the ethics of zoos. In W. Frost (Ed.), Zoos and tourism: Conservation, education, entertainment? (pp. 47–58). Toronto: Channel View.Google Scholar
  79. Weeden, C. (2001). Ethical tourism: An opportunity for competitive advantage? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 8(2), 141–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wight, P. A. (1993). Ecotourism: Ethics or eco-sell? Journal of Travel Research, 21(3), 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Williams, P., Gill, A., & Ponsford, I. (2007). Corporate social responsibility at tourism destinations: Toward a social license to operate. Tourism Review International, 11(2), 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wonders, N. A., & Michalowski, R. (2001). Bodies, borders, and sex tourism in a globalized World: A tale of two cities—Amsterdam and Havana. Social Problems, 48(4), 545–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yaman, H. R. (2003). Skinner’s naturalism as a paradigm for teaching business ethics: A discussion from tourism. Teaching Business Ethics, 7, 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yaman, H. R., & Gurel, E. (2006). Ethical ideologies of tourism marketers. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(2), 470–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yeung, S. (2004). Hospitality ethics curriculum: An industry perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16(4), 253–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Tourism ManagementBrock UniversitySt. CatharinesCanada

Personalised recommendations