Seeding Free Electron Lasers with High Order Harmonics Generated in Gas

  • Marie-Emmanuelle CouprieEmail author
  • Luca Giannessi
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 197)


Short wavelength Free Electron Lasers (FEL) may operate in the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) configuration, where the spontaneous radiation originated by the electron shot noise is gradually amplified. This generally leads to an output pulse consisting of uncorrelated temporal spikes with a limited longitudinal coherence length. When a FEL amplifier is seeded by a coherent light source, the coherence properties of the seed are transferred to the initial electron-beam modulation, allowing for an improved control of the longitudinal properties of the emitted radiation. The spiky structure is suppressed both in the temporal domain and spectral domain and the bunching process becomes more efficient. Associated intensity and jitter fluctuations are reduced, as well as the arrival-time jitter. In addition the use of an external seed reduces the saturation length and therefore the associated costs of the device. High order harmonics generated in gas permit to seed a FEL amplifier in the vacuum ultra-violet, enabling the direct generation of seeded-Free Electron Laser radiation directly at short wavelengths. We analyze here the basic requirements for the seed source in terms of seed level versus the electron shot noise, and the problems of coupling of the seed source to the FEL. We also review the most recent achievements with HHG seeding, in particular on SCSS Test Accelerator, SPARC and SFLASH.


Shot Noise Slippage Length Free Electron Laser Resonant Wavelength Electron Bunch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors wish to thank Giuseppe Dattoli for the numerous useful discussions on the FEL theory, to acknowledge the contribution of Giuseppe Sansone, Salvatore Stagira and Mauro Nisoli for providing their results on the simulations of the HHG seed in combination with the FEL amplification. They wish to thank Bertrand Carr, Luca Cultrera, Massimo Ferrario, Daniele Filippetto, David Garzella, Toru Hara, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Hideo Kitamura, Marie Labat, Guillaume Lambert, Marcello Quattromini, Pascal Salières, Tsumoru Shintake, Tagashi Togashi, Carlo Vicario, Makina Yabashi and more in general all the colleagues from the SPARC and SCSS Test Accelerator teams, for their support in the experiments of HHG seeding at SCSS Test Accelerator and of high gain harmonic generation seeded by harmonics in gas at SPARC. They finally thank Carlo Callegari for his careful reading of the manuscript and for his constructive comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Synchrotron SOLEILGif-sur-Yvette CedexFrance
  2. 2.ENEA C. R. FrascatiFrascati, RomeItaly
  3. 3.Elettra-Sincrotrone TriesteBasovizzaItaly

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