The Soft X-ray Free-Electron Laser FERMI@Elettra

  • Marco ZangrandoEmail author
  • Nicola Mahne
  • Lorenzo Raimondi
  • Cristian Svetina
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 197)


FERMI, the Italian free electron laser (FEL) user facility, delivers high-intensity ultra-short photon pulses in the 100–4 nm range. A diagnostic section called PADReS (Photon Analysis, Delivery, and Reduction System) follows the two undulator chains, giving informations about the photon beam intensity, transverse distribution and coherence, pointing, and energy spectrum. All these quantities are available during the experiments as they are obtained in a non-invasive way on a shot-to-shot basis. The radiation intensity can also be controlled by means of a gas absorber. Moreover, it is possible to split and delay part of the beam to perform auto-correlation measurements determining the pulse length and temporal coherence, as well as to perform pump-probe experiments. Finally, active optics-based systems refocus the photon beam into the endstations.


Photon Beam Free Electron Laser Transverse Distribution Seed Laser Beam Position Monitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Zangrando
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nicola Mahne
    • 2
  • Lorenzo Raimondi
    • 2
  • Cristian Svetina
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.IOM—CNR and Elettra Sincrotrone TriesteTriesteItaly
  2. 2.Elettra Sincrotrone TriesteTriesteItaly
  3. 3.University of Trieste, Graduate School of NanotechnologyTriesteItaly

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