The Use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in Visualizing the Root Canal Biofilm

  • Linda B. Peters
  • Brandon Peterson
  • David E. Jaramillo
  • Luc van der SluisEmail author
Part of the Springer Series on Biofilms book series (BIOFILMS, volume 9)


Apical periodontitis is caused by microorganisms in planktonic or biofilm state present in the root canal system and/or attached to the outer apical root surface. Knowledge about the microorganisms and biofilm structure within and external to the root canal system is important in order to effectively treat apical periodontitis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to visualize and morphologically describe the presence of biofilm and microorganisms associated with teeth with apical periodontitis. This chapter provides a short outline of the applications of SEM in endodontics with the intention to describe the benefits and shortcomings of this microscopic technique.


Root Canal Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy Dentinal Tubule Endodontic Treatment Apical Periodontitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda B. Peters
    • 1
  • Brandon Peterson
    • 2
  • David E. Jaramillo
    • 3
  • Luc van der Sluis
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Dentistry and Oral HygieneUniversity Medical Center GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.W. J. Kolff Institute, Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity Medical Center Groningen, University of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of EndodonticsUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterHoustonUSA

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