Development of High-Definition Virtual Reality for Historical Architectural and Urban Digital Reconstruction: A Case Study of Azuchi Castle and Old Castle Town in 1581

  • Tomohiro FukudaEmail author
  • Hirokazu Ban
  • Katsuhito Yagi
  • Junro Nishiie
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 527)


This study shows fundamental data for constructing a high-definition VR application under the theme of a three-dimensional visualization to restore past architecture and cities. It is difficult for widespread architectural and urban objects to be rendered in real-time. Thus, in this study, techniques for improving the level of detail (LOD) and representation of natural objects were studied. A digital reconstruction project of Azuchi Castle and old castle town was targeted as a case study. Finally, a VR application with specifications of seven million polygons, texture of 1.87 billion pixels, and 1920 × 1080 screen resolution, was successfully developed that could run on a PC. For the developed VR applications, both qualitative evaluation by experts and quantitative evaluation by end users was performed.


Cultural heritage Digital reconstruction Virtual reality Visualization 3D modeling Presentation 



We thank all the participants for their generous assistance in conducting Azuchi Castle VR project and experiment.


  1. 1.
    Lange, E.: Integration of computerized visual simulation and visual assessment in environmental planning. Landsc. Urban Plan. 30(1–2), 99–112 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang, S.: Application of BIM and VR technology in complex construction project: a case study of iceberg 3d BIM structure layout design for an ocean park. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures, pp. 245–255 (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Astheimer, P., Pöhe, M.-L.: Level-of-detail generation and its application in virtual reality. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, VRST 1994, pp. 299–309 (1994)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lou, C., Kaga, A., Sasada, T.: Environmental design with huge landscape in real-time simulation system: real-time simulation system applied to real project. Autom. Constr. 12(5), 481–485 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pelosi, A.: Obstacles of utilising real-time 3D visualisation in architectural representations and documentation. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, pp. 391–400 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dorta, T., Perez, E.: Immersive drafted virtual reality a new approach for ideation within virtual reality. In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture, pp. 304–316 (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shen, Z., Kawakami, M.: An online visualization tool for internet-based local townscape design. Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 34(2), 104–116 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hirayu, H., Ojika, T., Kijima, R.: Constructing the historic villages of shirakawa-go in virtual reality. IEEE Multimedia 7(2), 61–64 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu, Y.T.: Virtual chang-an: towards a better simulation for a disappeared city. In: The 2007 International Conference on Digital Applications in Cultural Heritage (DACH 2007), pp. 509–529 (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chevrier, C., Perrin, J.P.: Generation of architectural parametric components: cultural heritage 3D modelling. CAAD Futures 2009, 105–118 (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boeykens, S.: Using 3D design software, BIM and game engines for architectural historical reconstruction. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures (CAAD Futures 2011), pp. 493–509 (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schnabel, M.A., Kvan, T.: Spatial understanding in immersive virtual environments. Int. J. Archit. Comput. 1(4), 435–448 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fukuda, T., Taguchi, M.: Data pipeline from BIM to energy simulator and virtual reality for upgrading interoperability. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Civil and Building Engineering Informatics (ICCBEI 2013), pp. 403–409 (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ota, G., Kuwata, T.: Shincho koki [The chronicle of Oda Nobunaga in Japanese], Shinjinbutsuoraisha (1997)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luis, F., Matsuda, K., Kawasaki, M.: Frois Nihonshi [The history of Japan by Luis Frois in Japanese], 2, Chuokoron-Shinsha (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Naito, A.: Azuchi-jo no kenkyu [The research of Azuchi Castle in Japanese], Kokka 987 (1976)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Naito, A.: Azuchi-jo no kenkyu [The research of Azuchi Castle in Japanese], Kokka 988 (1976)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fukuda, T., Sakata, K., Yeo, W., Kaga, A.: Development and evaluation of a close-range view representation method of natural elements in a real-time simulation for environmental design. In: Proceedings of the 24th eCAADe (Education and Research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe), pp. 58–65 (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rafi, A., Paul, A., Noraishah, S., Nazri, M.: Techniques on heritage preservation using lighting computation virtual environment. CAAD Futures 2009, 95–104 (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sakakibara, K., Miyake, R., Tsukamoto, N., Ban, K.: A study on image quality evaluation of visual simulation for planning/design. J. Civ. Eng. Inf. Process. Syst. 4, 9–16 (1995)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomohiro Fukuda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hirokazu Ban
    • 2
  • Katsuhito Yagi
    • 3
  • Junro Nishiie
    • 2
  1. 1.Osaka UniversitySuitaJapan
  2. 2.Omihachiman City GovernmentOmihachimanJapan
  3. 3.Toppan Printing Co., Ltd.TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations