Advertisement

Impacts of Urban Pollution on Thunderstorms

  • Yuan WangEmail author
Chapter
  • 466 Downloads
Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)

Abstract

In this study, we have performed an analysis of lightning, precipitation, and visibility and numerical modeling to elucidate the relationship between air pollution and thunderstorms and to quantify the aerosol indirect effects on cloud development, precipitation, and lightning over the PRD area. Seven year measurements of precipitation, lightning flashes, and visibility from 2000 to 2006 have been analyzed in this area. To assess the effects of aerosols on cloud processes, precipitation, lightning activity, a WRF model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme has been employed to simulate a mesoscale convective system in this area. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to reflect aerosol conditions characteristic of both polluted and clean cases to further reveal the physical mechanism for the precipitation and lightning enhancement under the polluted aerosol condition. Note that the present modeling work only focuses on the indirect effect of aerosols, by which aerosols serve as CCN and hence affect precipitation and lightning activities of the thunderstorm event.

Keywords

Aerosols Thunderstorm Heavy precipitation Lightning 

References

  1. Deng X, Tie X, Wu D, Zhou X, Bi X, Tan H, Li F, Jiang C (2008) Long-term trend of visibility and its characterizations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. Atmos Environ 42(7):1424–1435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Goodman SJ, MacGorman DR (1986) Cloud-to-ground lightning activity in mesoscale convective complexes. Mon Weather Rev 114:2320–2328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. He LY, Huang XF, Xue L, Hu M, Lin Y, Zheng J, Zhang RY, Zhang YH (2011) Submicron aerosol analysis and organic source apportionment in an urban atmosphere in Pearl River Delta of China using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. J Geophys Res 116:D12304Google Scholar
  4. Hong S-Y, Noh Y, Dudhia J (2006) A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes. Mon Weather Rev 134:2318–2341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Khain A, Ovtchinnikov M, Pinsky M, Pokrovsky A, Krugliak H (2000) Notes on the state-of-the-art numerical modeling of cloud microphysics. Atmos Res 55(3–4):159–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kusaka H, Kondo H, Kikegawa Y, Kimura F (2010) A simple single-layer urban canopy model for atmospheric models: comparison with multi-layer and slab models. Bound Layer Meteorol 101:329–358Google Scholar
  7. Li C, Lau AK-H, Mao J, Chu DA (2005) Retrieval, validation, and application of the 1-km aerosol optical depth from MODIS measurements over Hong Kong. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 43(11):2650–2658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Li G, Wang Y, Zhang R (2008) Implementation of a two-moment bulk microphysics scheme to the WRF model to investigate aerosol-cloud interaction. J Geophys Res 113(D15):D15211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Liu S, Hu M, Slanina S, He LY, Niu YW, Bruegemann E, Gnauk T, Herrmann H (2008a) Size distribution and source analysis of ionic compositions of aerosols in polluted periods at Xinken in Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China. Atmos Environ 42(25):6284–6295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liu S, Hu M, Wu ZJ, Wehner B, Wiedensohler A, Cheng YF (2008b) Aerosol number size distribution and new particle formation at a rural/coastal site in Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China. Atmos Environ 42(25):6275–6283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Qian Y, Gong D, Fan J, Leung LR, Bennartz R, Chen D, Wang W (2009) Heavy pollution suppresses light rain in China: observations and modeling. J Geophys Res 114:D00K02Google Scholar
  12. Rakov VA, Uman MA (2003) Lightning: physics and effects. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  13. Seifert A, Beheng KD (2005) A two-moment cloud microphysics parameterization for mixed-phase clouds. Part 2: Maritime vs. continental deep convective storms. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 92:67–82. doi: 10.1007/s00703-005-0113-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14.  Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN (2006) Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. van den Heever SC, Cotton WR (2007) Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 46:828–850. doi: 10.1175/jam2492.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16.  Wang W, Ren LH, Zhang YH, Chen JH, Liu HJ, Bao LF, Fan SJ, Tang DG (2008) Aircraft measurements of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter over Pearl River Delta in China. Atmos Environ 42(25):6187–6202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wang Y, Wan Q, Meng W, Liao F, Tan H, Zhang R (2011) Long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over the Pearl River Delta megacity area in China. Atmos Chem Phys 11(23):12421–12436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Williams ER, Zhang R, Rydock J (1991) Mixed phase microphysics and cloud electrification. J Atmos Sci 48:2195–2203Google Scholar
  19. Wu D, Tie X, Li C, Ying Z, Kai-Hon Lau A, Huang J, Deng X, Bi X (2005) An extremely low visibility event over the Guangzhou region: a case study. Atmos Environ 39(35):6568–6577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wu D, Bi X, Deng X, Li F, Tan H, Liao G, Huang J (2007) Effect of atmospheric haze on the deterioration of visibility over the Pearl River Delta. Acta Meteorol Sinica 21(2)Google Scholar
  21. Yair Y, Lynn B, Price C, Kotroni V, Lagouvardos K, Morin E, Mugnai A, Llasat MdC (2010) Predicting the potential for lightning activity in Mediterranean storms based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model dynamic and microphysical fields. J Geophys Res 115(D4):D04205Google Scholar
  22. Zhang RY, Khalizov AF, Pagels J, Zhang D, Xue HX, McMurry PH (2008a) Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(30):10291–10296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhang YH, Hu M, Zhong LJ, Wiedensohler A, Liu SC, Andreae MO, Wang W, Fan SJ (2008b) Regional integrated experiments on air quality over Pearl River Delta 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004): overview. Atmos Environ 42(25):6157–6173CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations