Unified Estimation Model of Multi-system Biases Including BDS/GPS/GLONASS/Galileo

  • Changhui Xu
  • Hu WangEmail author
  • Yamin Dang
  • Hao Chen
  • Longping Zhang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 340)


Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) will increase the numbers of available observations to improve the solution accuracy, reliability and availability of precise positioning. Multi-system fusion with BDS is nowadays increasingly paid attention. However, the multi-system fusion focuses only on loose combination model, which means that each system has their reference satellite each other. This model will increase the probability of initialization because the reference satellite can be often changed during the process of positioning. If multi-system fusion has unified time and signal reference, that is, multi-system fusion selects the same satellite as the reference satellite, the problem will be covered. Therefore, the paper proposed an estimation model of multi-system biases for multi-system fusion. The estimation model will investigate differential code bias (DCB) of each system and inter-system biases (ISB) among systems. Multi-system data from IGS, MGEX and iGMAS were collected to analyze the effects of different types of the receivers on various biases, and then a unified multi-system biases estimation model was proposed. The results show that there are some biases of ISBs in GNSS systems and the biases are affected by stations. The variation of GLONASS satellites has a unified tendency and the ISBs of BDS has a fluctuation property, which need to be improved.


Beidou satellite navigation satellite system Differential code bias Inter-frequency bias Inter-system bias Bias estimation model 



This research work was supported by the International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment System (GFZX0301040308-06), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.41404034), the research foundation of the china academy of surveying and mapping (7771405) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information Engineering China University of Mining and Technology.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Changhui Xu
    • 1
  • Hu Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yamin Dang
    • 1
  • Hao Chen
    • 2
  • Longping Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Chinese Academy of Surveying and MappingBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Resources and EnvironmentUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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