Accuracy Assessment of the Doppler Frequency and Pseudorange Model Based on GPS/LEO Radio Occultation

  • Xian-Sheng Xu
  • Yan LiuEmail author
  • Ye Li
  • Xu Xu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 340)


The Doppler frequency and pseudorange model are important information for open-loop tracking of GPS/LEO signal. The Doppler frequency model can be predicted through iteration, with the use of a bending angle/refractivity climatology and satellite orbits. The pseudorange model can be obtained by multi-epoch or single-epoch algorithm. About 7279 COSMIC radio occultation soundings, from DOY (day of year) 71 to DOY 73 in 2007, recorded in open-loop mode are processed by above-mentioned algorithms, the calculated Doppler frequency and pseudorange model are compared with corresponding COSMIC observations. The statistical comparisons of the difference between COSMIC Doppler frequency observation and Doppler frequency model show: above 2 km impact height, the mean Doppler frequency shift caused by the Earth’s neutral atmospheric condition is less than 3 Hz, the corresponding standard deviation is less than 6 Hz. The mean and standard deviation of the difference between COSMIC phase observation and pseudorange model calculated by multi-epoch algorithm are less than 15 m and 23 m, respectively, above 2 km. Similar results can be found in the single-epoch algorithm. The accuracy of the pseudorange model calculated by single-epoch algorithm is better than that of multi-epoch algorithm. Therefore, the atmospheric Doppler and pseudorange model predicted by the single-epoch algorithm can be used to track the GPS radio occultation signals recorded in the open-loop mode.


GPS/LEO occultation Open-loop Closed-loop The doppler frequency Pseudorange 



The authors are grateful to University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) for access to COSMIC RO data and ECMWF analysis data. This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11273047, 41305016), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang province (LQ13D050002) and the Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo (2014A610156).


  1. 1.
    Sokolovskiy S (2001) Modeling and inverting radio occultation signals in the moist troposphere. Radio Sci 36(3):441–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sokolovskiy S, Rocken C, Schreiner W et al (2010) On the uncertainty of radio occultation inversions in the lower troposphere. J Geophys Res 115(D22111). doi: 10.1029/2010JD014058
  3. 3.
    Lohmann MS (2007) Analysis of global positioning system (GPS) radio occultation measurement errors based on Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C) GPS radio occultation data recorded in open-loop and phase-locked-loop mode. J Geophys Res 112:D9115. doi: 10.1029/2006JD007764 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sokolovskiy S (2001) Tracking tropospheric radio occultation signals from low Earth orbit. Radio Sci 36(3):483–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kuo YH, Wee TK, Sokolovskiy S et al (2004) Inversion and error estimation of GPS radio occultation data. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 82(1B):507–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sokolovskiy S, Rocken C, Schreiner WS et al (2009) Postprocessing of L1 GPS radio occultation signals recorded in open-loop mode. Radio Sci 44:S2002. doi: 10.1029/2008RS003907 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schreiner WS, Rocken C, Sokolovskiy S et al (2010) Quality assessment of COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 GPS radio occultation data derived from single- and double-difference atmospheric excess phase processing. GPS Solutions 14:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schreiner WS, Sokolovskiy S, Hunt D et al (2011) Analysis of GPS radio occultation data from the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC and Metop/GRAS missions at CDAAC. Atmos Meas Tech 4:2255–2272. doi: 10.5194/amt-4-2255-201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ningbo Institute of TechnologyZhejiang UniversityNingboChina
  2. 2.Numerical Weather Prediction CenterChina Meteorology AdministrationBeijingChina
  3. 3.Space Star Technology Co., LtdBeijingChina
  4. 4.Oujiang CollegeWenzhou UniversityWenzhouChina

Personalised recommendations