Sports Injuries



Regular participation in sports and exercise activities is considered beneficial for health but unfortunately sometimes sports injuries occur. Based on the onset of symptoms and the mechanism, sports injuries can be classified as either acute injuries (due to a single traumatic event) or overuse injuries (due to repetitive microtraumata). In this chapter, the various types and causes of sports injuries of the musculoskeletal system are described. The general principles of acute and overuse injuries of the bone, cartilage, joint, ligaments, muscle, tendon, bursa, and nerves are discussed, and some insight into etiology and pathophysiology is provided.


Stress Fracture Sport Injury Overuse Injury Myositis Ossificans Medial Tibia Stress Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aaron DL, Patel A, Kayiaros S, Calfee R (2011) Four common types of bursitis: diagnosis and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 19(6):359–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackermann PW, Renstrom P (2012) Tendinopathy in sport. Sports Health 4(3):193–201PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahr R, Mæhlum S (2004) Clinical guide to sports injuries. Human Kinetics, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  4. Bahr R (2009) Br J Sports Med 43:966–972Google Scholar
  5. Bhosale AM, Richardson JB (2008) Articular cartilage: structure, injuries and review of management. Br Med Bull 87:77–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brukner P, Khan K (2012) Brukner & Khan’s clinical sports medicine, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, North RydeGoogle Scholar
  7. Buckwalter JA (2002) Articular cartilage injuries. Clin Orthop Relat Res 9(402):21–37Google Scholar
  8. Buckwalter JA, Martin JA (2004) Sports and osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 16(5):634–639CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen FS, Rokito AS, Jobe FW (2001) Medial elbow problems in the overhead-throwing athlete. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 9(2):99–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cook JL, Purdam CR (2009) Is tendon pathology a continuum? A pathology model to explain the clinical presentation of load-induced tendinopathy. Br J Sports Med 43(6):409–416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cushner FD, Morwessel RM (1992) Myositis ossificans traumatica. Orthop Rev 21(11):1319–1326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. De Souza MJ, Nattiv A, Joy E, Misra M, Williams NI, Mallinson RJ et al (2014) 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and 2nd International Conference held in Indianapolis, Indiana, May 2013. Br J Sports Med 48(4):289. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-093218 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Delos D, Maak TG, Rodeo SA (2013) Muscle injuries in athletes: Enhancing recovery through scientific understanding and novel therapies. Sports Health 5(4):346–352PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Do TT (2000) Transient synovitis as a cause of painful limps in children. Curr Opin Pediatr 12(1):48–51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Flanigan DC, Harris JD, Trinh TQ, Siston RA, Brophy RH (2010) Prevalence of chondral defects in athletes’ knees: a systematic review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42(10):1795–1801CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Frank CB (2004) Ligament structure, physiology and function. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 4(2):199–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. George CA, Hutchinson MR (2012) Chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Clin Sports Med 31(2):307–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gholve PA, Scher DM, Khakharia S, Widmann RF, Green DW (2007) Osgood Schlatter syndrome. Curr Opin Pediatr 19(1):44–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gielen JL, Peersman B, Peersman G, Roelant E, Van Dyck P, Vanhoenacker F, Roeykens J (2009) Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in motocross racers: findings on MRI. Skeletal Radiol 38(12):1153–1161. doi: 10.1007/s00256-009-0746-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gillespie H (2010) Osteochondroses and apophyseal injuries of the foot in the young athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep 9(5):265–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hall M, Anderson J (2013) Hip pointers. Clin Sports Med 32(2):325–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Harrison AK, Flatow EL (2011) Subacromial impingement syndrome. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 19(11):701–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hiti CJ, Stevens KJ, Jamati MK, Garza D, Matheson GO (2011) Athletic osteitis pubis. Sports Med 41(5):361–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Khan KM, Cook JL, Bonar F, Harcourt P, Astrom M (1999) Histopathology of common tendinopathies. Update and implications for clinical management. Sports Med 27(6):393–408CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Khan KM, Cook JL, Kannus P, Maffulli N, Bonar SF (2002) Time to abandon the “tendinitis” myth. BMJ 324(7338):626–627PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Klausner VB, McKeigue ME (2000) The sinus tarsi syndrome: a cause of chronic ankle pain. Phys Sportsmed 28(5):75–80CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Laible C, Stein DA, Kiridly DN (2013) Meniscal repair. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 21(4):204–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lewis PB, Ruby D, Bush-Joseph CA (2012) Muscle soreness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. Clin Sports Med 31(2):255–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Longo UG, Petrillo S, Maffulli N, Denaro V (2013) Acute achilles tendon rupture in athletes. Foot Ankle Clin 18(2):319–338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Magnusson SP, Langberg H, Kjaer M (2010) The pathogenesis of tendinopathy: balancing the response to loading. Nat Rev Rheumatol 6(5):262–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. McRae R, Esser M (2008) Practical fracture treatment, 5th edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Miller KC, Stone MS, Huxel KC, Edwards JE (2010) Exercise-associated muscle cramps: causes, treatment, and prevention. Sports Health 2(4):279–283PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Minetto MA, Holobar A, Botter A, Farina D (2013) Origin and development of muscle cramps. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 41(1):3–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Mithoefer K, Hambly K, Logerstedt D, Ricci M, Silvers H, Della Villa S (2012) Current concepts for rehabilitation and return to sport after knee articular cartilage repair in the athlete. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 42(3):254–273CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Moen MH, Tol JL, Weir A, Steunebrink M, De Winter TC (2009) Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review. Sports Med 39(7):523–546CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Murray J, Gross L (2013) Optimizing the management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 21(12):767–771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Norris FH Jr, Gasteiger EL, Chatfield PO (1957) An electromyographic study of induced and spontaneous muscle cramps. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 9(1):139–147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Patel DS, Roth M, Kapil N (2011) Stress fractures: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Am Fam Physician 83(1):39–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Pegrum J, Crisp T, Padhiar N (2012) Diagnosis and management of bone stress injuries of the lower limb in athletes. BMJ 344:e2511CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Puranen J, Orava S (1991) The hamstring syndrome – a new gluteal sciatica. Ann Chir Gynaecol 80(2):212–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rees JD, Stride M, Scott A (2014) Tendons – time to revisit inflammation. Br J Sports Med 48(21):1553–1557. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091957. Epub 2013 Mar 9.
  42. Sankar WN, Matheney TH, Zaltz I (201•3) Femoroacetabular impingement: current concepts and controversies. Orthop Clin North Am 44(4):575–589Google Scholar
  43. Schwellnus MP, Drew N, Collins M (2008) Muscle cramping in athletes – risk factors, clinical assessment, and management. Clin Sports Med 27(1):183–194, ix–xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Shadgan B, Menon M, Sanders D, Berry G, Martin C Jr, Duffy P et al (2010) Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity. Can J Surg 53(5):329–334PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Takeda H, Nakagawa T, Nakamura K, Engebretsen L (2011) Prevention and management of knee osteoarthritis and knee cartilage injury in sports. Br J Sports Med 45(4):304–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Toth C (2009) Peripheral nerve injuries attributable to sport and recreation. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 20(1):77–100, viiiCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Trojian TH (2013) Muscle contusion (thigh). Clin Sports Med 32(2):317–324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Vizsolyi P, Taunton J, Robertson G, Filsinger L, Shannon HS, Whittingham D et al (1987) Breaststroker’s knee. an analysis of epidemiological and biomechanical factors. Am J Sports Med 15(1):63–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Woo SL, Abramowitch SD, Kilger R, Liang R (2006) Biomechanics of knee ligaments: injury, healing, and repair. J Biomech 39(1):1–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Center for Sport, Exercise and Health, Center for Sports Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations