The Potential of 3D Internet in the Cultural Heritage Domain

  • Pedro Santos
  • Sebastian Pena Serna
  • André Stork
  • Dieter Fellner
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8355)


Europe is rich in cultural heritage but unfortunately much of the tens of millions of artifacts remain in archives. Many of these resources have been collected to preserve our history and to understand their historical context. Nevertheless, CH institutions are neither able to document all the collected resources nor to exhibit them. Additionally, many of these CH resources are unique, and will be on public display only occasionally. Hence, access to and engagement with this kind of cultural resources is important for European culture and the legacy of future generations. However, the technology needed to economically mass digitize and annotate 3D artifacts in analogy to the digitization and annotation of books and paintings has yet to be developed. Likewise approaches to semantic enrichment and storage of 3D models along with meta-data are just emerging. This paper presents challenges and trends to overcome the latter issues and demonstrates latest developments for annotation of 3D artifacts and their subsequent export to Europeana, the European digital library, for integrated, interactive 3D visualization within regular web browsers taking advantage of technologies such as WebGl and X3D.


Cultural heritage digitization 3d reconstruction photorealistic rendering virtual replica 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sansoni, G., Trebeschi, M., Docchio, F.: State-of -the-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation. Sensors 9(1), 568–601 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Seitz, S., Curless, B., Diebel, J., Scharstein, D., Szeliski, R.: A Comparison and Evaluation of Multi-View Stereo Reconstruction Algorithms. In: Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 519–526 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ritz, M., Langguth, F., Scholz, M., Goesele, M., Stork, A.: High resolution acquisition of detailed surfaces with lens-shifted structured light. Computers & Graphics 36(1), 16–27 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gupta, M., Agrawal, A., Veeraraghavan, A., Narasimhan, S.G.: Structured Light 3D Scanning in the presence of Global Illumination. In: Proceedings of the CVPR 2011, pp. 713–720 (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holroyd, M., Lawrence, J., Zickler, T.: A coaxial optical scanner for synchronous acquisition of 3D geometry and surface reflectance. SIGGRAPH, Article 99, 12 pages (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schwartz, C., Weinmann, M., Ruiters, R., Klein, R.: Integrated High-Quality Acquisition of Geometry and Appearance for Cultural Heritage. In: The 12th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archeology and Cultural Heritage, VAST 2011, pp. 25–32 (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Project: AIM@SHAPE, (last visited: February 12, 2013)
  8. 8.
    Project: FOCUS K3D, (last visited: February 02, 2013)
  9. 9.
    Project: 3D-COFORM, (last visited: February 12, 2013)
  10. 10.
    Project V-MusT, (last visited: February 12, 2013)
  11. 11.
    Project: Enhancing engagement with 3D heritage data through semantic annotation, (last visited: February 12, 2013)
  12. 12.
    Semantic annotations for 3D artefacts project, (last visited: February 12, 2013)
  13. 13.
    Alpcan, T., Bauckhage, C., Kotsovinos, E.: Towards 3d internet: Why, what, and how? In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Cyberworlds, CW 2007, pp. 95–99 (October 2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Linking open data, (last visited: December 02, 2013)
  15. 15.
    Havemann, S., Fellner, D.W.: Seven research challenges of generalized 3D documents. IEEE Comput. Graph.Appl. 27(3), 70–76 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Spagnuolo M., Falcidieno B.: 3D media and the semantic web. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 90–96 (March/April 2009) Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Torsten, U., Settgast, V., Berndt, R.: Semantic enrichment for 3D documents techniques and open problems. In: ELPUB: 14th International Conference on Electronic Publishing: Publishing in the Networked World: Transforming the Nature of Communication, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 374–384 (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Koller, D., Frischer, B., Humphreys, G.: Research challenges for digital archives of 3D cultural heritage models. Journal of Computing and Cultural Heritage 2(3), 1–17 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Catalano, C., Mortara, M., Spagnuolo, M., Falcidieno, B.: Semantics and 3D media: Current issues and perspectives. Computers & Graphics 35(4), 869–877 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Attene, M., Biasotti, S., Mortara, M., Patané, G., Spagnuolo, M., Falcidieno, B.: Computational methods for understanding 3D shapes. Computers & Graphics 30(3), 323–333 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    De Floriani, L., Magillo, P., Papaleo, L., Puppo, E.: Shape modeling and understanding: Research trends and results of the G3 group at DISIGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Floriani, L.D., Papaleo, L., Carissimi, N.: A Java3D framework for inspecting and segmenting 3D models. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on 3D Web Technology, Los Angeles, California, pp. 67–74. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Papaleo, L., De Floriani, L.: Semantic-based segmentation and annotation of 3D models. In: Foggia, P., Sansone, C., Vento, M. (eds.) ICIAP 2009. LNCS, vol. 5716, pp. 103–112. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Attene, M., Robbiano, F., Patané, G., Mortara, M., Spagnuolo, M., Falcidieno, B.: Semantic annotation of digital 3D objects. In: Albertoni, R., Mortara, M. (eds.) SAMT (Posters and Demos), vol. 300. (2007)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Attene, M., Robbiano, F., Spagnuolo, M., Falcidieno, B.: Part-Based annotation of virtual 3D shapes. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Cyberworlds, pp. 427–436. IEEE Computer Society (2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Doerr, M., Theodoriou, M.: CRMdig: a generic digital provenance model for scientific observation. In: Proceedings of 3rd USENIX Workshop on the Theory and Practice of Provenance, Heraklion, Crete, Greece (2011)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rodriguez Echavarria, K., Morris, D., Arnold, D.: Web based presentation of semantically tagged 3D content for public sculptures and monuments in the UK. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on 3D Web Technology, Darmstadt, Germany, pp. 119–126. ACM (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Havemann, S., Settgast, V., Berndt, R., Eide, O., Fellner, D.W.: The arrigo showcase reloaded - towards a sustainable link between 3D and semantics. J. Comput. Cult. Herit. 2(1), 1–13 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pena Serna, S., Scopigno, R., Doerr, M., Theodoriou, M., Georgis, C., Ponchio, F., Stork, A.: 3D-centered media linking and semantic enrichment through integrated searching, browsing, viewing and annotating. In: VAST 2011: The 12th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Intelligent Cultural Heritage, Prato, Italy (2011)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Behr, J., Eschler, P., Jung, Y., Zoellner, P.M.: X3DOM – a DOM-based HTML5/ X3D integration model. In: Proceedings Web3D 2009, pp. 127–135. ACM Press, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Behr, J., Jung, Y., Keil, J., Drevensek, T., Eschler, P., Zoellner, M., Fellner, D.: A scalable architecture for the HTML5/ X3D integration model X3DOM. In: Proc. Web3D, pp. 185–193. ACM Press, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Behr, J., Jung, Y., Drevensek, T., Aderhold, A.: Dynamic and interactive aspects of X3DOM. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on 3D Web Technology (Web3D 2011), pp. 81–87. ACM, New York (2011),, doi:10.1145/2010425.2010440Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vukicevic, V.: Canvas 3d (2009), (last visited: February 12, 2013)
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    Kay, L.: Scenejs (2010), (last visited: February 12, 2013)
  36. 36.
    Brunt, P.: Glge (2010), (last visited: February 12, 2013)
  37. 37.
    Benedetto, M.D., Ponchio, F., Ganovelli, F., Scopigno, R.: Spidergl: a javascript 3d graphics library for next-generation www. In: Proc. Web3D 2010, pp. 165–174. ACM, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Project: Europeana, (last visited: February 12, 2013)
  39. 39.
    ESE Europeana metadata format, (last visited: February 12, 2013)
  40. 40.
    Crofts, N., Doerr, M., Gill, T., Stead, S., Stiff, M.: Definition of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model, ISO (2005)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI), Dublin Core,
  42. 42.
    Schröttner, M., Havemann, S., Theodoridou, M., Doerr, M., Fellner, D.W.: A generic approach for generating cultural heritage metadata. In: Ioannides, M., Fritsch, D., Leissner, J., Davies, R., Remondino, F., Caffo, R. (eds.) EuroMed 2012. LNCS, vol. 7616, pp. 231–240. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hansen, H.J., Fernie, K.: CARARE: Connecting archaeology and architecture in europeana. In: Ioannides, M., Fellner, D., Georgopoulos, A., Hadjimitsis, D.G. (eds.) EuroMed 2010. LNCS, vol. 6436, pp. 450–462. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Santos
    • 1
  • Sebastian Pena Serna
    • 1
  • André Stork
    • 1
  • Dieter Fellner
    • 2
  1. 1.Fraunhofer IGDDarmstadtGermany
  2. 2.GRIS/TU-DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations