Voltammetric Analysis of Platinum in Environmental Matrices

  • Santino OrecchioEmail author
  • Diana Amorello
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


This article will summarize measurement data for Pt in different environmental samples obtained by the authors using a recently developed approach by voltammetric analysis. A fast accumulation of platinum and rhodium in the environmental and biological matrices has been observed in the last few years and concern has arisen about potential environmental and health risks. Voltammetry was used for the determination of Pt and Rh in airborne particulate collected in Palermo, Italy. Possible interferences by other environmental metals have also been evaluated. All samples show concentrations of Pt and Rh above average upper crust values. The Pt and Rh concentrations in particulate samples collected at four air quality monitoring sites within the urban area of Palermo (Italy), where the air pollution often reaches high levels, leading to traffic restrictions. The highest mean values of Pt and Rh concentrations (Pt = 13 pg/m3, Rh = 9.8 pg/m3 with peak values of 33 pg/m3 and 19 pg/m3, respectively) were recorded at the Unità d’Italia urban station, and the lowest at CEP (a neighborhood of the city of Palermo) station (Pt = 3.6 pg/m3, Rh = 0.26 pg/m3), considered as a background station.


Enrichment Factor Differential Pulse Voltammetry Total Suspended Particle Heavy Traffic Catalytic Converter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Culotta L, Melati MR, Orecchio S (2002) The use of leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. as samplers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Assessment of air quality in the area of Palermo. Ann Chim 92:837–845Google Scholar
  2. Culotta L, Gianguzza A, Orecchio S (2005) Leaves of Nerium oleander L. as bioaccumulators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the air of Palermo (Italy). Extraction and GC–MS analysis, distribution and sources. Polycycl Aromat Compd 25:327–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dongarra G, Varrica D, Sabatino G (2003) Occurrence of platinum, palladium and gold in pine needles of Pinus pinea L. from the city of Palermo. Appl Geochem 18:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ek KH, Rauch S, Morrison GM, Lindberg P (2004) Platinum group elements in raptor eggs, faeces, blood, liver and kidney. Sci Total Environ 334(335):149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gianguzza A, Culotta L, Orecchio S (2008) Absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by pinus bark: analytical method and use for environmental pollution monitoring in the Palermo area (Sicily, Italy). Environ Res 107:371–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gomez B, Gomez M, Sanchez JL, Fernandez R, Palacios MA (2001) Platinum and rhodium distribution in airborne particulate matter and road dust. Sci Total Environ 269:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Greenwood NN, Earnshaw A (1985) Chemistry of the elements. Pergamon, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  8. Harris DC (2005) Chimica analitica quantitativa. Zanichelli, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Hoppstock K, Sures B (2004) Platinum group metals. In: Merian E, Anke M, Ihnat M, Stoeppler M (eds) Elements and their compounds in the environment. Wiley, Weinheim, pp 1047–1086Google Scholar
  10. Konig HP, Hertel RF, Koch W, Rosner G (1992) Determination of the platinum emissions from threeway catalyst-equipped gasoline engine. Atmos Environ 26:741–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kounaves SP (1997) Voltammetric techniques (Chap. 37). In: Settle FA (ed) Handbook of instrumental techniques for analytical chemistry. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, USA.
  12. Locatelli C (2006) Simultaneous square wave stripping voltammetric determination of platinum group metals (PGMs) and lead at trace and ultra trace concentration level, application to surface water. Anal Chim Acta 557:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lombardo M, Melati MR, Orecchio S (2001) Assessment of the quality of the air in the city of Palermo through chemical and cell analyses on Pinus needles. Atmos Environ 35:6435–6445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Merget R (1999) Occupational platinum salt allergy. Diagnosis, prognosis, prevention and therapy. In: Zereini F, Alt F (eds) Anthropogenic platinum-group-element emissions and their impact on man and environment. Springer, Berlin, pp 257–266Google Scholar
  15. Merget R, Rosner G (2001) Evaluation of the health risk of platinum group metals emitted from automotive catalytic converters. Sci Total Environ 270:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Moldovan M, Gomez MM, Palacios MA (1999) Determination of platinum, rhodium and palladium in car exhaust fumes. Anal Atom Spectrom 14:1163–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Orecchio S (2007) PAHs associated with leaves of Quercus ilex L.: extraction, GC-MS analysis, distribution and sources. Assessment of air quality in the Palermo (Italy) area. Atmos Environ 41:8669–8680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Orecchio S (2010) Contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil of a botanical garden localized next to a former manufacturing gas plant in Palermo (Italy). Hazard Mater 180:590–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Orecchio S, Amorello D (2010) Platinum and rhodium associated with the leaves of Nerium oleander L.; analytical method using voltammetry; assessment of air quality in the Palermo (Italy) area. J Hazard Mater 174:720–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Orecchio S, Amorello D (2011) Platinum levels in urban soils from Palermo (Italy); analytical method using voltammetry. Microchem J 99:283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Orecchio S, Amorello D, Carollo C (2012) Voltammetric determination of platinum in perfusate and blood: preliminary data on pharmacokinetic study of arterial infusion with oxaliplatin. Microchemical 100:72–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Palacios MA, Moldovan M, Gómez M (2000) The automobile catalyst as an important source of PGE in the environment. In: Zereini F (ed) Anthropogenic platinum group element emission: their impact on man and environment. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Petrucci F, Bocca B, Alimonti A, Caroli S (2000) Determination of Pd, Pt, Rh in airborne particulate and road dust by high-resolution ICP-MS: a preliminary investigation of the emission from auto motive catalysts in the urban area of Rome. Anal Atom Spectrom 15:525–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Piech R, Basa B, Kubiaka WW (2008) The cyclic renewable mercury film silver based electrode for determination of molybdenum (VI) traces using adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Talanta 76:295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rauch S, Lu M, Morrison GM (2001) Heterogeneity of platinum group metals in airborne particles. Environ Sci Technol 35:595–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rauch S, Hemond HF, Peucker-Ehrenbrink B, Ek KH, Morrison GM (2005) Platinum group element concentrations and osmium isotopic composition in urban airborne particles from Boston, Massachusetts. Environ Sci Technol 39:9464–9470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rauch S, Peucker-Ehrenbrink B, Molina LT, Molina MJ, Ramos R, Hemond H (2006) Platinum group elements in airborne particles in Mexico City. Environ Sci Technol 40(75):54–60Google Scholar
  28. Rubino S, Portanova P, Girasolo A, Calvaruso G, Orecchio S, Stocco GC (2009) Synthetic, structural and biochemical studies of polynuclear platinum (II) complexes with heterocyclic ligands. Europ J Med Chem 44:1041–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Skoog DA, Leary J (2000) Chimica analitica strumentale. Edises, NapoliGoogle Scholar
  30. Stoica AI, Peltea M, Baiulescu GE, Ionica M (2004) Determination of cobalt in pharmaceutical products. J Pharm Biomed Anal 36:653–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sures B, Zimmermann S, Messerschmidt J, von Bohlen A, Alt F (2001) First report on the uptake of automobile catalyst emitted palladium by European eels (Anguilla anguilla) following experimental exposure to road dust. Environ Pollut 113:341–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vlasankova R, Otruba V, Bendl J, Fisera M, Kanicky V (1999) Preconcentration of platinum group metals on modified silica gel and their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in airborne particulates. Talanta 48:839–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wiseman CLS, Zereini F (2009) Airborne particulate matter, platinum group elements and human health: a review of recent evidence. Sci Total Environ 407:2493–2500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zereini F, Alt F (eds) (2000) Anthropogenic platinum group element emission: their impact on man and environment. Springer, Berlin, pp 33–44Google Scholar
  35. Zereini F, Wiseman C, Alt F, Messerschmidt J, Müller J (2001) Urban H., platinum and rhodium concentrations in airborne particulate matter in Germany from 1988 to 1998. Environ Sci Technol 35:1996–2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zimmermann S, Menzel CM, Berner Z, Eckhardt JD, Stuben D, Alt F, Messerschmidt J, Taraschewski H, Sures B (2001) Trace analysis of platinum in biological samples: a comparison between sector field ICP-MS and adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry following different digestion procedures. Anal Chim Acta 439:203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche, Chimiche e FarmaceuticheUniversità di PalermoPalermoItaly

Personalised recommendations