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Solid State Platinum Speciation from X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Studies of Fresh and Road Aged Three Way and Diesel Vehicle Emission Control Catalysts

  • Timothy I. Hyde
  • Gopinathan SankarEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

The localised Pt environments present in a variety of unused (fresh) and used (road aged) gasoline Three Way (TWC) and Light and Heavy Duty Diesel vehicle emission catalysts (VEC) from both European and North American origins were determined by platinum L3 and L2 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Detailed laboratory based characterisation was also utilised to support the XAS studies. It was found that it is not sufficient to use the analysis of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) alone to determine the nature of Pt species present in multi component VEC’s. Detailed analysis of the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the Pt L3 and L2 edges was therefore extensively utilised and revealed the presence of mainly oxidic species in the fresh catalysts while metallic and bimetallic components were found to be the dominant species in the respective road aged catalysts. More importantly, supporting Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the absence of chlorine associated with platinum. Hence we dismiss the presence of environmentally significant quantities of chloroplatinate species in VEC’s based on weight-of-evidence arguments from chemical analysis, Cl K-edge XANES and analysis of Pt L3 and L2 edge EXAFS data.

Keywords

Metallic Platinum White Line Intensity Vehicle Emission Control Diesel Vehicle Emission Bimetallic Component 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank all our co-authors in related publications in particular P.W. Ash, D.A. Boyd, J. Keating, J.J Schauer, M.M Shafer, B.M. Toner, G. Randlshofer and K. Rothenbacher. In addition we thank the Analytical Department of the Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, beamline staff of APS 20-BM and B18 of the Diamond Light Source, in particular Dr A. Kroner, Prof A. Dent and Dr G. Cibin for their assistance in setting up the experiments. G.S thanks the Royal Society, London UK for an Industry Fellowship.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Johnson Matthey Technology CentreReadingUK
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity College LondonLondonUK

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