Advertisement

Platinum-Group Elements in Urban Fluvial Bed Sediments—Hawaii

  • Ross A. SutherlandEmail author
  • Graham D. Pearson
  • Chris J. Ottley
  • Alan D. Ziegler
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

Results from a detailed examination of the abundance, spatial variability and grain-size fractionation of platinum-group elements (PGEs; iridium, Ir; palladium, Pd; platinum, Pt; and rhodium, Rh) in bed sediments of an urban stream in Honolulu (Hawaii, USA) indicate significant contamination of Pd, Pt, and Rh. PGE concentrations in sediments located in close proximity to storm drains followed the sequence of Pt (10.3–24.5 ng g−1) > Pd (5.9–12.6 ng g−1) > Rh (0.82–2.85 ng g−1) > Ir (0.11–0.23 ng g−1). From a contamination perspective, enrichment ratios followed the sequence of Rh (25.3) ≫ Pd (6.9) = Pt (6.8) ≫ Ir (2.3). Iridium was primarily geogenic in origin, while the remaining PGEs indicated significant anthropogenic contamination. Attrition of the PGE-loaded three-way catalytic converters and their release to the road environment is the most likely source of PGEs in the stream sediments examined. PGE enrichment of bed sediments likely resulted from direct transport of sediment-associated road runoff via storm drains. Preliminary work on grain-size partitioning showed preferential enrichment and mass loading of Pd, Pt, and Rh in grain-size fractions ranging from 63 to 1,000 μm. Data from this study have direct implications for contaminant transport, and sediment source identification in urban catchments. Rhodium, in particular, emerged as an element potentially useful for sediment fingerprinting.

Keywords

Catalytic Converter Enrichment Ratio Road Runoff Stainless Steel Sieve Road Sediment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors greatly appreciate the field assistance provided by Stephanie Andrews and Dr. Matt McGranaghan in sampling bed sediment samples in Nuuanu catchment. The financial assistance provided by the seed-money grant to RAS by the College of Social Sciences, University of Hawaii at Manoa is gratefully acknowledged. Manuscript preparation benefitted from National University of Singapore FASS Research Facilitation Workshop in 2011 (R-109-000-115-112).

References

  1. Acres GJK, Harrison B (2004) The development of catalysts for emission control from motor vehicles: early research at Johnson Matthey. Top Catal 28:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akrivi AA, Tsogas GZ, Gioikas DL, Vlessidis AG (2012) Analytical determination and bio-monitoring of platinum group elements in roadside grass using microwave assisted digestion and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Lett 45:526–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aleksander-Kwaterczak U, Helios-Rybicka E (2009) Contaminated sediments as a potential source of Zn, Pb, and Cd for a river system in the historical metalliferous ore mining and smelting industry area of south Poland. J Soil Sediment 9:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews S, Sutherland RA (2004) Cu, Pb, Zn contamination in Nuuanu watershed, Oahu, Hawaii. Sci Total Environ 324:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett VC, Norman MD, Garcia MO (2000) Rhenium and platinum group element abundances correlated with mantle source components in Hawaiian picrites: sulphides in the plume. Earth Planet Sci Lett 183:513–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowles JFW, Gize AP (2005) A preliminary study of the release of platinum and palladium from metallic particles in the surface environment by organic acids: relevance to weathering of particles from vehicle exhaust catalysts. Mineral Mag 69:687–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bozlaker A, Spada NJ, Fraser MP, Chellam S (2014) Elemental characterization of PM2.5 and PM10 emitted from light duty vehicles in the Washburn Tunnel of Houston, Texas: release of rhodium, palladium, and platinum. Environ Sci Technol 48:54–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brasher AM, Anthony SS (2000) Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in stream bed sediments and fish from selected streams on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 140-00, U.S. Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  9. Colombo C, Monhemius AJ, Plant JA (2008a) Platinum, palladium and rhodium release from vehicle exhaust catalysts and road dust exposed to simulated lung fluids. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 71:722–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colombo C, Monhemius AJ, Plant JA (2008b) The estimation of the bioavailabilities of platinum, palladium and rhodium in vehicle exhaust catalysts and road dusts using a physiologically based extraction test. Sci Total Environ 389:46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooper J, Beecham J (2013) A study of platinum group metals in three-way autocatalysts. Platin Met Rev 57:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crocket JH (2000) PGE in fresh basalt, hydrothermal alteration products, and volcanic incrustations of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:1791–1807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Vos E, Edwards SJ, McDonald I, Wray DS, Carey PJ (2002) A baseline survey of the distribution and origin of platinum group elements in contemporary fluvial sediments of the Kentish Stour, England. Appl Geochem 17:1115–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Djingova R, Kovacheva P, Wagner G, Markert B (2003) Distribution of platinum group elements and other traffic related elements among different plants along some highways in Germany. Sci Total Environ 308:235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ek KH, Morrison GM, Rauch S (2004) Environmental routes for platinum group elements to biological materials—a review. Sci Total Environ 334–335:21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ely JC, Neal CR, Kulpa CF, Schneegurt MA, Seidler JA, Jain JC (2001) Implications of platinum-group element accumulation along U.S. roads from catalytic-converter attrition. Environ Sci Technol 35:3816–3822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fliegel D, Berner Z, Eckhardt D, Stüben D (2004) New data on the mobility of Pt emitted from catalytic converters. Anal Bioanal Chem 379:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fumagalli A, Faggion B, Ronchini M, Terzaghi G, Lanfranchi M, Chirico N, Cherchi L (2010) Platinum, palladium, and rhodium deposition to the Prunus laurus cerasus leaf surface as an indicator of the vehicular traffic pollution in the city of Varese area. Environ Sci Pollut Res 17:665–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gao B, Yu Y, Zhou H, Lu J (2012) Accumulation and distribution characteristics of platinum group elements in roadside dusts in Beijing, China. Environ Toxicol Chem 31:1231–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gao B, Zhou H, Huang Y, Wang Y, Gao J, Liu X (2014) Characteristics of heavy metals and Pb isotopic composition in sediments collected from the tributaries in Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Sci World J. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/685834
  21. Horowitz AJ (1991) A primer on sediment-trace element chemistry. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  22. Hutchinson EJ, Pearson PJG (2004) An evaluation of the environmental and health effects of vehicle exhaust catalysts in the United Kingdom. Environ Health Perspect 112:132–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jackson MT, Sampson J, Prichard HM (2007) Platinum and palladium variations through the urban environment: evidence from 11 sample types from Sheffield, UK. Sci Total Environ 385:117–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jackson MT, Prichard HM, Sampson J (2010) Platinum-group elements in sewage sludge and incinerator ash in the United Kingdom: assessment of PGE sources and mobility in cities. Sci Total Environ 408:1276–1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jamais M, Lassiter JC, Brugmann G (2008) PGE and Os-isotopic variations in lavas from Kohala Volcano, Hawaii: constraints on PGE behavior and melt/crust interaction. Chem Geol 250:16–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jarvis KE, Parry SJ, Piper JM (2001) Temporal and spatial studies of autocatalyst-derived platinum, rhodium, and palladium and selected vehicle-derived trace elements in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 35:1031–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kalavrouziotis IK, Koukoulakis PH (2009) The environmental impact of the platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Rh) emitted by the automobile catalyst converters. Water Air Soil Poll 196:393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kanitsar K, Koellensperger G, Hann S, Limbeck A, Puxbaum H, Stingeder G (2003) Determination of Pt, Pd and Rh by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) in size-classified urban aerosol samples. J Anal At Spectrom 18:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kaspar J, Fornasiero P, Hickey N (2003) Automotive catalytic converters: current status and some perspectives. Catal Today 77:419–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee H-Y, Chon H-T, Sager M, Marton L (2012) Platinum pollution in road dusts, roadside soils, and tree barks in Seoul, Korea. Environ Geochem Health 34:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Limited LGC (2008) Certificate of analysis: ERM-EB503a (Platinum group elements in unused automobile catalyst). Middlesex, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Lucena P, Vadillo JM, Laserna JJ (1999) Mapping of platinum group metals in automotive exhaust three-way catalysts using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. Anal Chem 71:4385–4391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marcheselli M, Sala L, Mauri M (2010) Bioaccumulation of PGEs and other traffic-related metals in populations of the small mammal Apodemus sylvaticus. Chemosphere 80:1247–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mathur R, Balaram V, Satyanarayanan M, Sawant SS, Ramesh SL (2011) Anthropogenic platinum, palladium and rhodium concentrations in road dusts from Hyderabad City, India. Environ Earth Sci 62:1085–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meisel T, Moser J (2004) Platinum-group element and rhenium concentrations in low abundance reference materials. Geostand Geoanal Res 28:233–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meisel T, Fellner N, Moser J (2003) A simple procedure for the determination of platinum group elements and rhenium (Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir and Pt) using ID-ICP-MS with an inexpensive on-line matrix separation in geological and environmental materials. J Anal At Spectrom 18:720–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Milacic R, Scancar J, Murko S, Kocman D, Horvat M (2010) A complex investigation of the extent of pollution in sediments of the Sava River. Part 1: Selected elements. Environ Monit Assess 163:263–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Morton O, Puchelt H, Hernández E, Lounejeva E (2001) Traffic-related platinum group elements (PGE) in soils from Mexico City. J Geochem Explor 72:223–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nischkauer W, Herincs E, Puschenreiter M, Wenzel W, Limbeck A (2013) Determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in Brassica napus using solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta B 89:60–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Norman MD, Garcia MO, Bennett VC (2004) Rhenium and chalcophile elements in basaltic glasses from Koolau and Molokai Volcanoes: magmatic outgassing and composition of the Hawaiian plume. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:3761–3777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Owens PN, Caley KA, Campbell S, Koiter AJ, Droppo IG, Taylor KG (2011) Total and size-fractionated mass of road-deposited sediment in the city of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada: implications for air and water quality in an urban environment. J Soil Sediment 11:1040–1051Google Scholar
  42. Palacios MA, Gómez MM, Moldovan M, Morrison GM, Rauch S, McLeod C, Ma R, Laserna J, Lucena P, Caroli S, Alimonti A, Petrucci F, Bocca B, Schramel P, Lustig S, Zischka M, Wass U, Stenbom B, Luna M, Saenz JC, Santamaría J, Torrens JM (2000) Platinum-group elements: quantification in collected exhaust fumes and studies of catalysts surfaces. Sci Total Environ 257:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pan S, Zhang G, Sun Y, Chakraborty P (2009) Accumulating characteristics of platinum group elements (PGE) in urban environments, China. Sci Total Environ 407:4248–4252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Park J-W, Hu Z, Gao S, Campbell IH, Gong J (2012) Platinum group element abundances in the upper continental crust revisited—new constraints from analyses of Chinese loess. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 93:63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Peucker-Ehrenbrink B, Bach W, Hart SR, Blusztajn JS, Abbruzzese T (2003) Rhenium-osmium isotope systematics and platinum group element concentrations in oceanic crust from DSDP/ODP sites 504 and 417/418. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. doi: 10.1029/2002GC000414 Google Scholar
  46. Pitcher L, Helz RT, Walker RJ, Piccoli P (2009) Fractionation of the platinum-group elements and Re during crystallization of basalt in Kilauea Iki Lava Lake, Hawaii. Chem Geol 260:196–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pratt C, Lottermoser BG (2007) Mobilisation of traffic-derived trace metals from road corridors into coastal stream and estuarine sediments, Cairns, northern Australia. Environ Geol 52:437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Prichard HM, Fisher PC (2012) Identification of platinum and palladium particles emitted from vehicles and dispersed into the surface environment. Environ Sci Technol 46:3149–3154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Prichard HM, Jackson MT, Sampson JJ (2008) Dispersal and accumulation of Pt, Pd and Rh derived from a roundabout in Sheffield (UK): from stream to tidal estuary. Sci Total Environ 401:90–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Puls C, Limbeck A, Hann S (2012) Bioaccessibility of palladium and platinum in urban aerosol particulates. Atmos Environ 55:213–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Radakovitch O, Roussiez V, Ollivier P, Ludwig W, Grenz C, Probst J-L (2008) Input of particulate heavy metals from rivers and associated sedimentary deposits on the Gulf of Lion continental shelf. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 77:285–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rauch S, Morrison GM (2008) Environmental relevance of the platinum-group elements. Elements 4:259–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rauch S, Hemond HF, Peucker-Ehrenbrink B (2004) Recent changes in platinum group element concentrations and osmium isotopic composition in sediments from an urban lake. Environ Sci Technol 38:396–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ravindra K, Bencs L, Van Grieken R (2004) Platinum group elements in the environment and their health risk. Sci Total Environ 318:1–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Riga-Karandinos AN, Saitanis C (2004) Biomonitoring of concentrations of platinum group elements and their correlations to other metals. Int J Environ Pollut 22:563–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Saeedi M, Li LY, Karbassi AR, Zanjani AJ (2013) Sorbed metals fractionation and risk assessment of release in river sediment and particulate matter. Enivon Monit Assess 185:1737–1754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Spada N, Bozlaker A, Chellam S (2012) Multi-elemental characterization of tunnel and road dusts in Houston, Texas using dynamic reaction cell-quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: evidence for the release of platinum group and anthropogenic metals from motor vehicles. Anal Chim Acta 735:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sutherland RA (2003) Lead in grain size fractions of road-deposited sediment. Environ Pollut 121:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sutherland RA (2007) A re-examination of platinum-group element concentrations in the environmental certified reference material BCR-723. Int J Environ Anal Chem 87:501–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sutherland RA, Pearson DG, Ottley CJ (2007) Platinum-group elements (Ir, Pd, Pt and Rh) in road-deposited sediments in two urban watersheds, Hawaii. Appl Geochem 22:1485–1501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sutherland RA, Pearson DG, Ottley CJ (2008) Grain size partitioning of platinum-group elements in road-deposited sediments: implications for anthropogenic flux estimates from autocatalysts. Environ Pollut 151:503–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tatsumi Y, Oguri K, Shimoda G (1999) The behaviour of platinum-group elements during magmatic differentiation in Hawaiian tholeiites. Geochem J 33:237–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tuit CB, Ravizza GE, Bothner MH (2000) Anthropogenic platinum and palladium in the sediments of Boston Harbor. Environ Sci Technol 34:927–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wedepohl KH (1995) The composition of the continental crust. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:1217–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wei C, Morrison GM (1994a) Platinum analysis and speciation in urban gullypots. Anal Chim Acta 284:587–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wei C, Morrison GM (1994b) Platinum in road dusts and urban river sediments. Sci Total Environ 146(147):169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Whiteley JD (2005) Seasonal variability of platinum, palladium and rhodium (PGE) levels in road dusts and roadside soils, Perth, Western Australia. Water Air Soil Pollut 160:77–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Whiteley JD, Murray F (2003) Anthropogenic platinum group element (Pt, Pd and Rh) concentrations in road dusts and roadside soils from Perth, Western Australia. Sci Total Environ 317:121–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Whiteley JD, Murray F (2005) Autocatalyst-derived platinum, palladium and rhodium (PGE) in infiltration basin and wetland sediments receiving urban runoff. Sci Total Environ 341:199–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wiseman CLS, Zereini F (2009) Airborne particulate matter, platinum group elements and human health: a review of recent evidence. Sci Total Environ 407:2493–2500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wren M, Gagnon ZE (2014) A histopathological study of Hudson River crayfish, Orconectes virilis, exposed to platinum group metals. J Environ Sci Health A 49:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zar JH (1996) Biostatistical analysis, 3rd edn. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  73. Zereini F, Wiseman C, Beyer JM, Artelt S, Urban H (2001) Platinum, lead and cerium concentrations of street particulate matter (Frankfurt am Main, Germany). J Soil Sediment 1:188–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhong L, Li J, Yan W, Tu X, Huang W, Zhang X (2012) Platinum-group and other traffic-related heavy metal contamination in road sediment, Guangzhou, China. J Soil Sediment 12:942–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zimmermann S, Messerschmidt J, von Bohlen A, Sures B (2005) Uptake and bioaccumulation of platinum group metals (Pd, Pt, Rh) from automobile catalytic converter materials by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Environ Res 98:203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zischka M, Schramel P, Muntau H, Rehnert A, Gómez MG, Wannemaker G, Dams R, Quevauviller P, Maier EA (2002a) The certification of the contents (mass fractions) of palladium, platinum and rhodium in road dust, BCR-723. Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements European Commission BCR Certificate Information, EUR 20307 EN, GeelGoogle Scholar
  77. Zischka M, Schramel P, Muntau H, Rehnert A, Gómez MG, Stojanik B, Wannemaker G, Dams R, Quevauviller P, Maier EA (2002b) A new certified reference material for the quality control of palladium, platinum and rhodium in road dust, BCR-723. Trend Anal Chem 21:851–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ross A. Sutherland
    • 1
    Email author
  • Graham D. Pearson
    • 2
  • Chris J. Ottley
    • 3
  • Alan D. Ziegler
    • 4
  1. 1.Geomorphology Laboratory, Department of GeographyUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Earth SciencesDurhamUK
  4. 4.Geography DepartmentNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations